Volume 6 (2); June 25, 2016 [Booklet]
Quality Improvement of Broiler Chicken Breasts by Nisin and Lactic Acid.
Khalafalla FA, Ali FHM and Hassan AHA.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 37-47; pii: S2322455X1600007-6
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nisin, lactic acid and their combination on quality parameters and shelf life of broiler chicken breasts during chilling storage at 3 ± 1 °C. For achieving this goal, broiler chicken breasts were collected and divided into control and treated groups by dipping in each of 1% lactic acid, 2%lactic acid, nisin 50µg, nisin 100µg, nisin 50µg followed by 1% lactic acid, and nisin 100µg followed by 1% lactic acid. The samples were packaged and stored at 3 ± 1 °C. Control and treated groups were examined periodically at day zero and every three days until spoilage with chemical and microbiological methods. The results revealed that nisin, lactic acid and their combination improved the quality and extended the shelf life of broiler chicken breasts for 3 to 12 days during chilling storage. The use of nisin followed by lactic acid would be promising to provide a new hurdle technology for poultry meat decontamination.
Keywords: Broiler chicken breasts, Quality improvement, Lactic acid, Nisin, Chemical examination, Microbiological examination
Influence of Feed Withdrawal Length on Carcass Traits and Technological Quality of Indigenous Chicken Meat Reared Under Traditional System in Benin.
Polycarpe Tougan U, Assouan Bonou G, Gbaguidi T, Gbetondjingninougbo Koutinhouin B, Ahounou S, Salifou Ch, Mingnissè Zannou S, Guy Mensah A, Beckers Y, Everaert N, Théwis A and Abdou Karim Youssao I.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 48-58; pii: S2322455X1600008-6
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different feed withdrawal durations (0, 12 and 24 hours) on carcass traits and meat technological quality in local chicken of Benin. 30 South ecotype chickens of Benin were divided into 3 groups and slaughtered for the study after 12 hours of feed withdrawal. These chickens were all reared in free range according to the same traditional breeding system. The pH, weight of each carcass and the color of meat (breast and thigh) were determined. It appears that longer feed withdrawal periods significantly increased weight loss in chicken. The highest carcass weight, breast weight and carcass yields were recorded after 12 hours of feed withdrawal (P < 0.05). Technologically, the lowest pH values in the breast muscle at 1 hour, 8 hours, 16 hours and 20 hours post mortem were found in chickens slaughtered without any feed withdrawal (P < 0.05). At 12 and 24 hours post mortem, the highest pH values were noted in chickens slaughtered after 12 hours of feed withdrawal (P < 0.01). The live weight of control chickens and those slaughtered after 12 hours of feed withdrawal was highly and positively correlated with carcass weights (P < 0.001) but weakly and positively associated to breast weight and thigh-drumstick weight (P < 0.05); while after 24 hours of feed withdrawal, the live weight was moderately and positively correlated with the thigh-drumstick weight (P < 0.01, r = 0.9) but weakly associated to hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight (P < 0.05). After 24 hours of feed withdrawal, carcass yield was negatively correlated to breast drip loss (P ˂ 0.05). Overall, longer feed withdrawal increased weight loss, pH, luminance and yellowness of meat but reduced its redness, water holding capacity and shear force.
Keywords: Indigenous chicken, Feed withdrawal, Carcass traits, Meat quality, Benin.
Physiological Condition of First Female and Male Offspring of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) whose Parents were Supplemented by Turmeric Powder.
Saraswati TR and Tana S.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 59-65; pii: S2322455X1600009-6
The study was carried out to determine the physiological condition of the first female and male offspring of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) whose parents were supplemented by turmeric powder. This study consisted of two stages. In the first stage, 45 female quails aged 1 week were divided into 3 groups; P0: control; P1: supplemented by 54 mg turmeric powder/quail/day, P2: supplemented by 108 mg turmeric powder/quail/day. Each group consisted of 15 quails. Fertile eggs were collected from each treatment and incubated until hatched. Forty five females and 45 males offspring quails were collected from each treatment. The second stage consisted of 3 groups; K0: offspring of quail whose parents were not supplemented by turmeric powder (P0); K1: offspring of quail whose parents were supplemented by turmeric powder 54 mg/quail/day (P1); K2: offspring of quail whose parents were supplemented by turmeric powder 108 mg/quail/day (P2). This study implemented completely randomized design experimental method. It is proven that turmeric powder supplementation increased the levels of vitellogenin, HDL, vitamin B12, vitamin A, white egg protein, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid in eggs. In contrast, the cholesterol levels, LDL and total fat of eggs decreased. However, no significant changes of the oleic acid level were observed. On the second stage for both K1 and K2 in the case of the first female offspring of Japanese quail, the weight of carcass, SGPT, cholesterol serum, triglycerides serum and liver cholesterol increased, but LDL and SGOT serum decreased. Beside the weight of carcass, there were no significant changes for other parameters of the first male offspring of Japanese quail.
Key words: Japanese quail, Quality of egg, Physiological condition, Turmeric powder
Quality Characteristics of Whole Guinea Fowl Egg as Binder in Beef and Chevon Burgers.
Adzitey F, Birteeb P and Kwasi Holdbrook B.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 66-72; pii: S2322455X1600010-6
This study was conducted to determine the cohesiveness of whole guinea fowl egg as a binder in chevon and beef burgers. The study also investigated the sensory characteristics, nutritional content, cooking loss, lateral shrinkage, welling and doming of the beef and chevon burgers prepared using whole guinea fowl eggs. A total of 3 kg beef and 3 kg chevon were used. The meats were assigned using complete randomized design into 3 levels. The 3 levels of inclusion of the whole guinea fowl egg per kilogram of meat were 0 g, 50 g and 100 g which corresponds to each treatment that is B1 (control), B2 (5 %) and B3 (9 %) for beef, and C1 (control), C2 (5 %) and C3 (9 %) for chevon, respectively. Thus each treatment contained 1 kg meat, 0.5 g red pepper, 1.0 g black pepper, 1.0 g white pepper, 2.0 g mixed spice (adobo®), 5 g salt and whole guinea fowl egg (0 g, 50 g or 100 g). The meat and spices were minced and moulded manually into burgers using a cylindrical tube to obtain uniform shapes and sizes. They were vacuum-packed in transparent packaging bags and stored overnight at 4 °C prior to processing. The processed samples were evaluated for their sensory, nutritional and binding properties. Sensory characteristics of beef and chevon burgers (cohesiveness, colour, juiciness, texture, taste, flavor and overall liking) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). In absolute terms beef and chevon burgers with the highest inclusion level (9 %) of whole guinea fowl egg were most preferred. There were also no significant differences (P > 0.05) in moisture content, crude protein content, pH, cooking loss, lateral shrinkage and doming of the beef and chevon burgers. Significant difference (P < 0.05) occurred in the crude fat content of chevon burger but not beef burger. Welling was not observed in the beef and chevon burgers.
Key words: Binder, Burgers, Guinea fowl eggs, Nutritional, Sensory
Supplementation of Different Level of Deep Stacked Broiler Litter as a Source of Total Mixed Ration on Digestibility in Sheep and Their Effects on Growth Performance.
Tahir Khan M, Bhutto ZA , Abbas Raza SH, Saeed M, Arain MA, Arif M, Fazlani SA, Ishfaq M, Siyal FA, Jalili M and Moshaveri A.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 73-83; pii: S2322455X1600011-6
Poultry litter from rigorous poultry production plants has impact on environmental pollution. Feedstuffs for animal are getting with time expensive, to reduce the feed cost which could be achieved through the assimilation of relatively inexpensive and non-conventional feed ingredients, like poultry litter. The objective of this study was to explore the nutritive value of deep stacked broiler litter in ruminant’s total mixed ration. Four non castrated male sheep were used into 4×4 Latin Square Design (LSD) to 1 of the 4 dietary treatment groups that different in deep stacked broiler litter (DBL) as percentage of concentrate diet to investigate the nutritive value of DBL as a ruminant feed. The effect of dry matter intake and digestibility of DBL in sheep studied. Nitrogen retention was determined in total mixed ration at each level in the diets fed to sheep. Microsoft excels was used to balance experimental rations A, B, C, and D. Ration A was containing 0% DBL and served as control. Ration B contains 15% DBL, C was containing 30% DBL while Ration D containing 45% DBL. All the diets were prepared according to requirement of critical nutrients. All the diets were prepared isocaloric, isonitrogenous with or without DBL. Dry matter intake gradually decreased (P < 0.05) with the levels of broiler litter increased in the four diets. Means values of DMI (g/day) in rations A, B, C and D was 1040.7, 945.3, 840.9 and 786.8. Nitrogen retention (% of the total N consumed) were decreased (P < 0.05) as the broiler litter level increased in the diet. Up to 30% poultry litter in the supplement diets of sheep contributes as non-conventional source of nitrogen, and could be used for replacing traditional nitrogen sources like cotton seed cake. The findings of the present study suggested that inclusion of broiler litter up to 30% has no adverse effect on the health and apparent weight.
Keywords: Deep stacked, Mixed ration, Litter, Digestibility, Sheep
Awareness of Farmers on Newcastle Disease, its Vaccination and Antibody Titre in Commercial Chickens.
Modupe Lola O, Philip O, Yakubu D, Israel B, Lawal S, Paul A and Sunday Blessing O.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 84-91; pii: S2322455X1600012-6
Newcastle disease is a highly contagious viral disease which affects existing or developing poultry industries. This study was performed to assess the level of awareness of farmers on Newcastle disease and its control through vaccination and also to determine the level of Newcastle disease virus antibody (Ab) titer in commercial layer chicken sera using haemagglutination inhibition test in Jos South Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was shared to farmers to fill. Thirty four farms were visited and nine districts were randomly selected. A total of 354 sera were collected from commercial chickens; ten from each flock. There was a high level of awareness of farmers (100%) on ND and its vaccination (100%) and all the farmers (100%) had vaccinated their chickens against ND. The HI test revealed that, out of the 354 sera tested, 9 (2.5 %) chickens were negative for NDV Abs, which means had NDV antibody titer below the minimum protective titer of log2 3 and 345 chickens (97.5%) were positive for NDV Abs; had NDV antibody titer above log2 3. It was concluded that the level of awareness of farmers on ND and its control through vaccination was incredibly high, also, the level of protection to ND in vaccinated chickens was also very high, in that a higher percentage of the chickens had NDV Antibodies between log2 6 and log2 8, however, inspite of these, ND is still a continual threat to the poultry industry in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that, other biosecurity measures, such as good management practice, proper hygiene and surveillance be emphasized and ensured, in order to prevent ND infection among flocks.
Key words: Newcastle disease, Antibody titer, Haemagglutination inhibition, Commercial chickens
Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Morphometry in Growing Japanese Quails Fed with Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal as Partial Replacement of Dietary Soya Beans Meal.
Mahmud Muhammd A, Peter S, James G, Ruth N, Wosilat A, Musa M and Alhaji Abubakar M.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 92-98; pii: S2322455X1600013-6
One hundred and twenty (120) day old Japanese quails were bought and allocated to four dietary treatments of thirty (30) birds per treatment with the aim of studying the growth performance and gastrointestinal tract morphometry of growing Japanese quails fed with graded levels of Moringa oleifera meal as partial replacement of dietary soybean meal. Each treatment had three replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for six weeks. Four diets containing 24% crude protein for the growing phase (0-6 weeks) were formulated in which Moringa oleifera leaf meal replaced soya bean meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15% as T0, T1, T2, T3 respectively. The mean initial body weights, the mean final body weight and the mean total weight gains of the four treatments were significantly different from one another. However, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency, performance efficiency factor and production number significantly varied across the four treatments; with T1 having the best result than the others. The mean spleen weights, mean breast weights, mean thigh weights, mean drumstick weights, mean wing weights and mean liver weights of the growing Japanese quails in the four treatments were not significantly different from one another except the heart weight of T1. The mean weights, lengths, width and thickness of proventriculus, ventriculus, duodenum, jejunoileum, caeca and colon of the growing Japanese quails in the four treatments were not significantly different from one another, except the lengths of jejunoileum. It is therefore concluded that in growing Japanese quails, Moringa oleifera leaf meal may replace dietary soya beans meal up to 15%, with optimum level of 5% and no apparent adverse effects on gastrointestinal tract morphometry.
Key words: Growth performance, Gastrointestinal tract, Soya beans, Moringa oleifera, Japanese quail
Crude protein and energy requirements of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) during rearing period.
Omidiwura BRO, Odu O, Agboola AF, Akinbola DD and Iyayi EA.
J. World Poult. Res. 6(2): 99-104; pii: S2322455X1600014-6
Present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (3000, 3100 and 3200 kcal metabolizable energy/kg) and crude protein (20, 22, 24 and 26% crude protein) on performance of growing Japanese quail. 288 two-week old quail chicks were assigned into 12 treatments and 3 replicates with 8 birds in each. Birds were randomly allocated to each dietary treatment. For 3000, 3100 and 3200 kcal metabolizable energy/kg levels of energy, crude protein levels of 26, 24, 22 and 20% were assigned. Data on performance and nutrient digestibility were recorded and analyzed using a completely randomized design with a 4×3 factorial arrangement during 6 weeks of age. Metabolizable energy significantly affected (P < 0.05) total and daily feed intake. Level of crude protein also had a significant effect on the crude protein intake and protein efficiency ratio of growing Japanese quails. Level of crude protein and metabolizable energy had no significant effect on the body weight gain. The metabolizable energy significantly affected (P < 0.05) the ether extract digestibility while crude protein significantly affected ash digestibility. The results indicated that a diet of 26% crude protein and 3200 kcal metabolizable energy/kg is suitable for optimum performance of Japanese quail in terms of weight gain.
Keywords: Japanese quail, Crude protein, Metabolizable energy, Digestibility, Performance
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