Volume 8 (1); March 25, 2018
Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses Isolated from Commercial Chicken Flocks in Egypt between 2014 and 2016.
Setta A, Salem HM, Elhady M, El-Hussieny A and Arafa AS.
J. World Poult. Res. 8(1): 01-07, 2018; pii: S2322455X1800001-8
Infectious Bronchitis is one of the major viral diseases affecting poultry causing severe economic losses. The prevalence of Infectious Bronchitis viruses was studied in commercial chicken farms in Egypt between 2014 and 2016. A total of 1722 organ samples (trachea, kidney, caecal tonsils and lungs) were collected from 246 problematic flocks, showing respiratory signs and considerable mortalities, from 13 governorates throughout the examination period and were then subjected to molecular analysis using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Data from this study have shown a high prevalence (75.6%) of Infectious Bronchitis virus in Egyptian farms. Infections mixed with other respiratory viruses were frequently observed, including very virulent Newcastle disease, Low pathogenic avian influenza, H9N2 and High pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 with 27.9%, 25.7% and 17.1%, respectively with higher detection percentages observed in the winter season. Phylogenetic analysis of 19 selected positive Infectious Bronchitis virus has revealed Infectious Bronchitis virus genotypes closely related to variant II strains Eg/12120S/2012, IS/885, IS/1494, with 4 isolates was clustered in a new group. In conclusion, the present study provides further updates on the circulation and co-circulation of Infectious Bronchitis virus in commercial Egyptian flocks. The continuous existence of field variant Infectious Bronchitis virus in commercial chicken's farms in Egypt emphasizes the need for regular monitoring of Infectious Bronchitis with updating the control and vaccination strategies.
Keywords: Infectious bronchitis, Genetic characterization, Poultry, Prevalence, Epidemiology, Sequencing.
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Haematological Parameters of Broilers Fed Moringa oleifera Leaf Supplemented Feed Following Challenge with a Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus.
Balami AG, Ndahi JJ, Gadzama JJ, Enam SJ, Chiroma MA, Abdu PA, Wakawa MA, Aluwong T and Oladele SB.
J. World Poult. Res. 8(1): 08-17, 2018; pii: S2322455X1800002-8
A study was conducted to evaluate the haematological parameters of broilers fed Moringa oleifera leaf supplemented feed and had been challenged with a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Two hundred and forty day-old Ross 308 hybrid broiler chicks were assigned into four groups (A,B,C,D) of 60 chicks each in a deep litter type housing. While groups A and B were fed with formulated broiler starter and finisher containing 5% Moringa oleifera leaf, groups C and D were fed with formulated broiler starter and finisher without Moringa oleifera leaf. Groups A and C were vaccinated intramuscularly against infectious bursal disease (IBD) at 14 and 21 days of age, and Newcastle’s disease at 18 days of age. Groups A, B and C were intraocularly challenged at 35 days of age with 0.05 ml of a live vv IBDV. Groups B and D served as positive and negative control respectively. Blood was collected from 10 broilers in each group via the wing vein at 35, 38 and 42 days of age for various haematological indices. A significant decrease in the values of lymphocytes counts in group B at 38 days of age was observed. Heterophil / lymphocyte ratio had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in group D at 38 days of age. Packed cell volume significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at 38 days of age in groups A, B, C and D and subsequently increased (P < 0.05) by 42 days of age in groups B, C and D. Red blood cell count was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in group B and C at 38 days of age, while haemoglobin concentration significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 42 days of age in group B and D. Feeding broilers with5% MOL supplemented diet without vaccination did not prevent vvIBDV from causing a decrease in lymphocyte count 3 dpi in broilers of group B.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera leaf, vvIBDV, PCV, Lymphocyte, Haemoglobin
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Reproductive Performances of a Cameroonian Dual-Purpose Local Chicken Strain Fed Pelleted Diets Containing Graded Levels of Cassava and Sweet Potato Meal as an Energy Substitute for Maize.
Keambou TC, Vukiesu TC, Toukala JP, Tedongmo AMY, Soares RJ, Lisita F, Hako TBA , Kana JR, Defang FH and Ndamunkong KN.
J. World Poult. Res. 8(1): 18-24, 2018; pii: S2322455X1800003-8
The continuous rising price of maize due to an increasing competition between humans and livestock requires palliative measures to sustain animal production. cassava-sweet potato meal combination can be used as a substitute for maize in feeding chicken. This study aimed at improving poultry productivity through the enhancement of the reproductive performances of Cameroon Kabir chickens fed pelleted diets of graded levels inclusion of cassava-sweet potato meal as an energy substitute for maize.315 Kabir chickens (270 hens and 45 rosters) of 23 weeks of age, were randomly allocated to five treatments T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with graded levels of cassava-sweet potato meal as energy substitute for maize, and eggs were collected for the evaluation of laying performances and characteristics. Fertility and hatchability were also evaluated across four successive batches of incubations. The eggs’ weight was significantly (P < 0.05) different between treatments at weeks 2, 4, 5 and 12, highly significant (P < 0.01) at week 9, and very highly significant (P < 0.001) at week 6, 7, 8 and 10. The highest number of eggs laid, egg weight and mass were recorded in chicken receiving 25% (T2) replacement of maize with cassava and sweet potato meal, followed by T4 (75%), T5 (100%), T3 (50%) while T1, receiving control diet without cassava and sweet potato meal performed less for all the parameters. Generally, the trend of the feed conversion ratio was decreasing with increasing the inclusion level of cassava and sweet potato meal. The egg index showed significant differences in weeks 6 and 12, while week 2 showed high significant difference between the treatments. T2 (25%) recorded the highest fertility, while animals receiving control ration without maize substitution recorded the highest hatchability. In general, incorporation of 25% of fifty-fifty percent weight to weight of cassava and sweet potato meal can be recommended for reproduction in chicken without affecting neither the hatchability nor the physical characteristics of the eggs, though hatchability will require better attention.
Keywords: Reproduction, Local chicken, Cameroon, Cassava-sweet potato
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