Volume 11 (1); March 25, 2021 (In press)
Effects of Diet Containing Fermented Canola Meal on Performance, Blood Parameters and Gut Health of Broiler Chickens.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 01-07, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100001-11
ABSTRACT: The current research aimed to study the effects of the fermented canola meal (Lactobacillus) diet on productive performance, blood parameters, and gut health of broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions. A total number of 320 (Ross-308) one-day-old broiler chickens were allocated randomly into four experimental groups for 42 days. Four experimental groups with four types of diet, including the control group (CON) received basal diet, and three other experimental groups were supplemented with 20% of the canola meal (CM), 20% fermented canola meal (FCM), and 20% canola meal with probiotic (PCM). The chickens that fed FCM presented improvement in live body weight, feed conversion ratio, and higher nutrient digestibility, compared to CM and PCM groups. Serum glucose, total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of levels of chickens fed by FCM were higher than chickens fed CM and PCM, while there was a decrease in cholesterol. Fermented canola meal resulted in some noticeable beneficial changes in the cecum microflora communities through increasing the population of Lactobacillus spp. and decreasing the Escherichia coli and improved its morphology by increasing villus height. The results indicated that the fermentation of canola meal has enhanced performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health, which allow using greater amounts of fermented canola meal as a replacement of soybeans meal in the broiler diet.
Keywords: Broiler, Canola meal, Fermentation, Gut health, Performance, Serum parameter.
Clinicopathological Findings in Suspected Cases of Virus-induced Neoplastic Diseases in Commercial Layer Chickens in Nigeria.
Sani NA, Ugochukwu CI, Abalaka SE, Saleh A, Muhammed MS, Oladele SB, Abdu PA, and Njoku C.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 08-15, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100002-11
ABSTRACT: Avian neoplastic diseases, including Marek’s disease (MD), avian leukosis (AL), and reticuloendotheliosis (RE), are of economic importance in the chicken industry. However, it is difficult to differentiate MD from AL and RE by clinical signs and postmortem examination. Therefore, the present study aimed to classify the avian neoplastic diseases affecting commercial layer chickens in Nigeria using clinical history, postmortem examination, and histopathological technique. Carcasses of commercial layer chickens from 7 and 20 poultry farms in Kaduna and Plateau States were studied, respectively, from February 2017 to March 2018. The age, morbidity, and mortality rates in each of the affected farms were determined. Detailed postmortem examinations were carried out on the carcasses from the affected farms, and organs observed to have neoplastic lesions were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. The age means of the affected layers were 20.6 weeks and 20.8 weeks in Kaduna and Plateau States, respectively. The average morbidity rates of neoplasm in the affected layers were 3.9% and 9.3% in Kaduna and Plateau States, respectively, while the average mortality rates were 8.6% and 8.5% in Kaduna and Plateau States, respectively. The clinical observation of affected chickens indicated that they were anorexic and emaciated. Generally, the neoplastic lesions were characterized by white to gray, multifocal, firm nodules of varying sizes on the affected organs. In Kaduna State, the neoplasms were commonly observed on the liver (85.7%), spleen (71.4%), heart (42.9%), and kidneys (42.9%), while in Plateau State, the affected organs included liver (50%), spleen (25%), proventriculus (25%) and lungs (25%). The histopathological changes in the affected tissues were similar and characterized predominantly by the infiltration of lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and macrophages. The patterns of distribution of the pleomorphic neoplastic cells within the liver were multifocal and perivascular in most cases. Findings from the current study indicated that cases of neoplasms in commercial layer chickens in Kaduna and Plateau States, Nigeria, could be attributed to MD.
Keywords: Avian neoplastic diseases, Layer chickens, Pathology.
Effect of Pre-Slaughter Antacid Supplementation of Drinking Water on Carcass Yield and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens.
Namted S, Srisuwan K, Bunchasak C, and Rakangthong C.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 16-21, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100003-11
ABSTRACT: Antacid is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate, and citric acid, which can neutralize stomach acidity and may stabilize the pH of post-mortem carcass and meat. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens by supplementing the antacid in drinking water. A total of 48 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were divided into two groups that the first group was the control group (did not receive antacid supplementation in the drinking water) and the second group was supplemented with antacid in drinking water (0.10%) for three days pre-slaughter. It was found that the antacid supplementation increased the percentage of breast meat, while carcass yield, and thigh, drumstick, and wing were not significantly affected. The pH of breast meat 45 minutes and the drip loss at 24 hours post-slaughter was significantly higher. The shear-force of breast meat was reduced (P < 0.05) by antacid supplementation. For the color of the breast meat, there were no significant differences in lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) between the two groups, but the total difference in the color of meat was slightly increased. It can be concluded that supplementing the drinking water with an antacid for three days before slaughter improves the carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens by maintaining the pH and water holding capacity of the meat.
Key words: Antacid, Broiler chickens, Carcass yield, Meat quality.
Effects of Acetaminophen and Vitamin Supplement on Feed intake, Body Weight, and Acute Pain Responses of Pullets Subjected to Beak-trimming.
Okoroafor ON, Okereke HN, and Udegbunam RI.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 22-30, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100004-11
ABSTRACT: The first experiment aimed to compare the effects of manual and electric beak-trimming on feed intake, body weight, and some biochemical parameters of eight-week-old pullets. A total of 20 pullets aged 3 weeks were assigned to two treatment groups; those in group A were manually debeaked while the samples in group B were electro debeaked. The findings indicated that 2 hours post-beak-trimming (PBT), the packed-cell volume of group A was significantly higher than that of group B. Plasma cortisol level of group A was significantly higher than that of group B at 2 and 6 hours PBT while total plasma protein level of group A was significantly lower than that of the group at 2 and 72 hours PBT. Furthermore, feed intake and body weight markedly decreased in the pullets debeaked with both methods until 72 hours PBT. The chickens’ beak trimmed with both methods experienced intense pain of varying degrees lasting up to 72 hours. In the second experiment, 40 eight-week-old pullets were assigned to four groups; group A was the control, group B was treated with a vitamin supplement, group C was treated with acetaminophen, and group D was treated with vitamin supplement plus acetaminophen. After 24 hours, chickens were beak-trimmed using a manual cutter. The results revealed that 2 hours PBT, plasma cortisol level in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than that of group A. Blood glucose was lowest in groups A and D at 6 and 24 hours PBT, respectively. It is concluded that the pre-treatment with vitamins and NSAIDs could reduce stress and pain in debeaked chickens.
Keywords: Anti-stress, Debeaking, Pain, Pullet.
Effect of Egg Storage Length on Hatchability and Survival of Koekoek Chickens.
Molapo SM, Mahlehla M, Kompi PP, and Taoana M.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 31-35, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100005-11
ABSTRACT: Chicken production plays a major in the livelihood of rural people due to the provision of eggs and meat which are high sources of protein. This calls for sustainable production of chickens through strategies aimed at improving the hatchability of eggs and survival of chickens. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of egg storage length on egg hatchability and survival of the Koekoek chickens. A total number of 270 eggs were divided into three treatment groups, and the eggs of each group were stored for 3, 7, and 11 days before incubation. Each treatment consisted of three replicates. The General Linear Model procedure was used to analyze the data. The eggs that were stored for three days before incubation had a higher hatching percentage, compared to those that were stored for 7 and 11 days before incubation. Storing eggs for few days before incubation resulted in reduced embryonic mortality rate and lower mortality of chickens during the first seven days after hatching. Based on these results, is recommended that Koekoek chicken eggs should be stored for three days before incubation to maximize hatchability and survival of chickens before the age of seven days.
Keywords: Eggs, Storage, Embryo mortality, Hatchability, Koekoek chicken.
The Effect of Substitution of Fish Meal by Maggot Meal (Hermetia Illucens L) on the Relative Length of Digestive Tract, Histomorphology of Small Intestines, and the Percentage of Carcass Parts in Native Chickens.
Auza FA, Purwanti S, Syamsu JA, and Natsir A.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 36-46, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100006-11
ABSTRACT: The development of the digestive tract organs is closely related to the increased body weight growth in chickens. The present study aimed to determine the effect of using maggot meal as an antibacterial and protein source of fish meal substitution in diets on the relative length of the digestive tract organs, small intestine histomorphology, and the percentage of the native chicken carcass. A total of 140 one-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to one of the five treatments according to a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The treatments included P0 (basal diet + 15% fish meal + 0% maggot meal), P1(basal diet + 11.25% fish meal + 3.75% maggot meal), P2 (basal diet + 7.5% fish meal + 7.5% maggot meal), P3(basal diet + 3.75% fish meal + 11.25% maggot meal), and P4 (basal diet + 0% fish meal + 15% maggot meal). The results showed that the use of maggot meal in P3 had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the relative length, villi height, depth of duodenal crypt, jejunum and ileum, villi surface area, the density of jejunum and ileum villi, and percentage of thigh and wing weight. Besides, the treatment tended to increase the relative length of the caecum and colon, surface area of the duodenal villi, and chest weight percentage. However, the treatment did not affect the duodenal villi density and percentage of back weight in native chickens. The use of maggot meal up to 11.25% in diets can improve the relative length of intestinal, histomorphology of small intestine’s villi, and the percentage of carcass parts of native chickens.
Keywords: Carcass parts, Digestive tract, Histomorphology, Maggot meal, Native chicken.
The Effects of Mixed Vitamins, Minerals, Fatty Acids and Amino Acids Supplementation into Drinking Water on Broiler Chickens’ Performance and Carcass Traits.
Sadarman, Arisandi R, Hamid A, Saleh E, Zain WNH, Sholikin MM, Prihambodo TR, Harahap RP, Solfaine R, Sofyan A, and Irawan A.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 47-52, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100007-11
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of the feed supplement containing minerals, fatty acids, vitamins, and amino acids added to drinking water on broiler chickens’ performance and carcass traits. A total of 100 one-day-old Cobb 707 (mean weight 46.7 g) were randomly assigned into four treatments, including control group (C), C + 2.25 ml/L Viterna Plus (V1), C + 2.50 ml/L Viterna Plus (V2), and C + 2.75 ml/L Viterna Plus (V3). Each treatment group contained 5 replicates of 5 birds in each (25 birds per treatment). Birds were maintained for 28 days. The results suggested that feed supplement at 2.50 ml/L could successfully improve final body weight, performance index, and carcass weight (P < 0.05). Concurrently, the treatment also reduced the percentage of abdominal fat (P 0.05). In conclusion, the incorporation of commercial feed supplement containing mixed of minerals, vitamins, and amino acids at 2.50 ml/L into drinking water improved the overall performance of the broiler chickens.
Keywords: Broiler chicken, Carcass, Feed supplement, Tropics, Viterna plus.
Sero-Epidemiology of Marek’s Disease Virus on Local and Exotic Chickens in the Northwest Ethiopia.
Birhan M, Berhane N, Bitew M, Gelaye E, Getachew B, Zemene A, Birie K, Temesgen W, and Abayneh T.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 53-63, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100008-11
ABSTRACT: Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic fowl caused by alphaherpesviruses. The current cross-sectional study with a simple random sampling method was undertaken from January 2018 to May 2020. The current study aimed to estimate sero-epidemiology and assess potential risk factors, it is very important to determine MD sero-positivity. Moreover, to measure the association of host and environmental risk factors, the occurrences and spread of MD were identified in local and exotic chickens in Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 768 serum samples from 3 zones were collected and assayed for Marek’s Disease Virus (MDV) antibodies using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to gather information on the potential risk factors of MDV sero-positivity, as well as the status of occurrences and spread in the chicken flocks. In the present preliminary study, a high flock and chicken level of MDV was demonstrated, with an overall seroprevalence of 59.11%. The mixed-effect logistic regression analysis of the host potential risk factors showed that the odds of seropositive for MD was significantly higher in local chickens (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.26-2.28) than exotic chickens, higher in chickens getting non-proper feed (OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.13-0.54) than getting proper feed, higher in vaccinated chickens (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.76-1.43) than non-vaccinated chickens. Rearing chicken of different batches in one house was decreased the odds of occurrence of MD by 55% (95% CI: 0.38-0.80) than all-in-all-out, higher in the well-ventilated type farms decreased the odds of occurrence of MD by 60% (95% CI: 0.39-0.80) than in poor ones. Litter management when farmers used chickens as fertilizer has decreased the odds of occurrence of MD by 55% (95% CI: 0.01-0.47) and chickens were tossed into open sheds 40% (95% CI: 0.01-0.31), compared to buried chickens management. The study results indicated that the number of farms where farmers wearing no clothes and shoes (95% CI: 0.10-0.58) were significantly decreased the occurrence of MD by 24% than those where farmers were equipped with clothes and shoes. The study area was highest in West Gojjam (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.27-0.58) and South Gondar (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.13-0.28) compared to North Gondar zone. In conclusion, the present study revealed a high flock and chicken seroprevalence level of MDV among chicken flocks in northwest Ethiopia, suggesting that environmental dust/dander and farm management systems might be a source of this disease for chicken infection. Besides, the observed association of MD, sero-positivity with environmental dust/dander, and farm management systems may suggest the economic importance of the disease for chicken production. Therefore, it warrants control attention to reduce its economic and disease spread burden in the study areas. Further works on the economic impacts, virus isolation, and molecular characterization of the disease are suggested.
Keywords: Chicken, Marek’s Disease, Northwest Ethiopia, Risk factors, Sero-epidemiology.
Biosecurity Practices and Characteristics of Poultry Farms in Three Regions of Cameroon.
Tatfo Keutchatang FDP, Bouelet Ntsama IS, Medoua Nama G, and Kansci G.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 64-72, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100009-11
ABSTRACT: The outbreak of diseases is the main factor affecting poultry production in Cameroon. The implementation of biosecurity measures in poultry farms is essential to reduce disease outbreaks. This study aimed to assess biosecurity practices in poultry farms in three regions of Cameroon. The study was carried out using a structured questionnaire on 90 randomly selected poultry farms. Most of the farmers were men (85%) with deep litter (77.8%), battery cage (2.2%), and both deep litter and battery cage (20.0%) housing systems. Amongst the farms surveyed, 9/30 (30.0%) in the Centre; 8/30 (26.7%) in the Littoral; and 13/30 (43.3%) in the West were aware of biosecurity measures. The biosecurity score (BS) of surveyed farms ranged between 2 and 3. The findings indicated that 39 farms (12 in the Centre, 14 in the Littoral, and 13 in the West) were at moderate risk, and 51 farms (18 in the Centre, 16 in the Littoral, and 17 in the West) were at high risk. Reasons for keeping chickens and the number of chickens per farm did not significantly influence BS, while the farm category could significantly affect it. The outbreak of diseases correlated with BS, showing a tendency of increase in the outbreak of diseases with increasing BS. This study underlines the fact that biosecurity practices in Cameroon have not been well implemented by chicken farmers. This leads to disease outbreaks, and consequently, important economic losses as well as massive use of drugs that may be unsafe for human consumption. Therefore, the effective monitoring of biosecurity in chicken farming should be encouraged by extension of training to the farmers to support the efficient production of chickens by respecting biosecurity that drastically reduces the risk of disease outbreaks and provides good quality chicken products for human consumption.
Keywords: Assessment, Biosecurity practices, Biosecurity scores, Cameroon, Poultry farms.
Egg Production, Fertility, Hatchability and Luteinizing Hormone Profile of Progesterone Hormone Injected to Arabic Gold Chicken (Gallus turcicus).
Iswati I, Natsir MH, Ciptadi G, and Susilawati T.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 73-82, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100010-11
ABSTRACT: The production and reproduction performance of chicken depends on their hormonal status, especially progesterone hormone, which has been known to correlate with egg production. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of progesterone hormone injection on Arabic Gold chickens (Gallus turcicus) regarding egg production and luteinizing hormone concentration in blood plasma. A total number of 60 Arabic Gold chickens aged 26-weeks were divided into three groups based on injected hormone concentration (P0: control; P1: 1 mg/chicken; P2: 2 mg/chicken). The study was conducted using a completely randomized design and the obtained data were analyzed with a descriptive analysis for qualitative data and one-way analysis of variance followed with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test as a post hoc test for the quantitative data. The results presented that progesterone hormone injection had a significant effect on hen day production two and six weeks after injection. The P1 group was able to reach its peak production (82.9%) at week 29, while the P2 group reached its peak at week 26 (78.9%). In addition, it was found that the P2 group produced a soft-shelled egg and double egg yolk. Progesterone injection led to no significant effect on the egg weight, shape index, fertility, embryo viability, hatchability, and chick weight at hatch. The luteinizing hormone concentration was higher in P2 (1.52 ng/ml), compared to P0 (1.36 ng/ml) and P1 (1.34 ng/ml) groups. It was concluded that progesterone hormone injection during the production phase of Arabic Gold chicken had a significant effect on egg production and caused varying egg production peak and luteinizing hormone concentration.
Keywords: Arabic Gold chicken, Egg quality, Hen day production, Luteinizing hormone, Progesterone.
Etiology of Respiratory Diseases of Poultry Farms in the North Coast of Egypt.
El-Samahy HS and Mourad DM.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 83-95, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100011-11
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to identify the respiratory problems in poultry farms located in the north coast of Egypt from October 2018 to November 2019. A total of 89 poultry flocks (79 broilers, 5 layers, 3 ducks, and 2 turkeys) were investigated for four major viral respiratory pathogens, namely avian influenza (AI) H9N2, AI H5 subtypes, Newcastle Disease (ND), and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) viruses. All 89 flocks were subjected to real-time PCR to investigate AI H9N2 virus. The samples of 31, 43, and 15 out of 89 flocks were selected for the investigation of ND, IB, and AI H5 subtypes viruses, respectively, using real-time PCR. Sample selection was performed according to the mortalities, clinical signs, and post mortem lesions. The positive findings indicated that 22 out of 89 flocks were positive for AI H9N2 virus (2 layers + 20 broilers), 32 out of 43 flocks were positive for IB virus (2 layers + 30 broilers), 24 out of 31 flocks were positive for ND virus (1 Duck + 1 layer+ 22 broilers) and 9 out of 15 flocks were positive for AI H5N8 virus (1 turkey + 1 duck + 7 broilers). Partial sequencing for selected isolates of six ND, five IB, four H9N2, and three H5N8 viruses was applied, then nucleotide sequences were accessed on GenBank. Six ND isolates belonged to genotype Vӏӏ viruses circulating in Egypt. Two IB isolates were related to the classical strain circulating in Egypt, while the other three IB isolates belonged to EGY/Variant ӏӏ. Four H9N2 AI isolates were related to G1-lineage of H9 viruses circulating in the Middle East and Egypt. Three H5N8 AI isolates belonged to the highly diverse clade 184.108.40.206.b viruses circulating in Egypt. It was concluded that ND and IB viruses isolated in this study were not related to their vaccinal strains. Also, AI H5N8 circulating alone in affected flocks while AI H9N2 circulating alone and/or mixed with either IB or ND viruses. Finally, there is a need to devise a complete strategy to control the isolated respiratory viruses on the north coast of Egypt.
Keywords: Poultry, Respiratory, RRT-PCR, Sequence, Viruses.
Isolation and Identification of Newcastle Disease Virus from Ducks Sold at Traditional Livestock Market Center in Indonesia.
Azizah AN, Anwar Ch, and Rahardjo AP.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 96-100, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100012-11
ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the important infectious diseases in the poultry industry. The traditional poultry markets have great potential in ND transmission. The ducks infected by the ND virus rarely show clinical symptoms, thus they can potentially spread the disease to other fowls. The current study aimed to isolate and identify the ND virus from ducks in a traditional live bird market center in East Java, Indonesia. Cloacal swab samples were taken from 300 ducks. The study consisted of 100 pooled samples, each containing a cloacal swab sample obtained from 3 individual ducks. The samples were inoculated in specific antibody-negative embryonated chicken eggs for 8-10 days. Hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests were performed for confirmation and identification of ND virus. Based on the result of the current study, out of 100 pooled samples, there were three to nine ducks infected with the ND virus.
Keywords: Cloaca Swab, Duck, Livestock, Newcastle Disease
Control of Intestinal E. coli Infection in Broiler Chicks Using Lactobacillus casei Isolated from Nono.
Ikele OM, Ezeonu IM, and Umeh ChN.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 101-109, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100013-11
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to evaluate whether the probiotic Lactobacillus casei could be effective in controlling chicken intestinal colibacillosis. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli.) and Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) isolates were obtained from nono (a sour milk product produced by Fulani tribe of Nigeria), and were used for the chicken infection and probiotic treatment, respectively. The experimental design was conducted on three-week-old broiler chicks, which were divided into five groups, namely A (healthy control), B (infected without treatment), C (infected and treated with antibiotic), D (infected and treated with L. casei), and E (initially given L. casei before infecting with E. coli). Groups C and D were treated using 15 g/L norfloxacin and 1.5 ml of 1.1x109cfu/ml L. casei, respectively. Group E was given the oral infusion of 1.5 ml of 1.1 × 109 cfu/ml L. casei before infection with 1.5 ml of 1.3 × 107 cfu/ml avian pathogenic E. coli. Weight, hematological parameters, liver function, and fecal E. coli counts of the chicks were monitored and used to evaluate the level of protection elicited by the probiotic organism. There was weight gain in chicken groups, except for group B. There was a significant difference in the sodium, chlorine, and bicarbonate levels amongst the groups. The hematological profile revealed a significant difference in the hemoglobin, white blood cells, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts of the chicken groups. Assessment of liver enzymes showed no significant difference amongst the chick groups except in group B. Similar results were obtained for the urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein levels. The microbial tests revealed a decrease in the total E. coli count for groups C, D, and E. The results of the current study indicated that L. casei could be used as a probiotic in the control of chicken colibacillosis.
Keywords: Broiler, Colibacillosis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Nono, Probiotics
Formalin Potentials in the Pathogenic Attenuation of Eimeria tenella based on Oocyst Productions.
Anggraini RD, Luqman EM, and Budhy S.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 110-115, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100014-11
ABSTRACT: Coccidiosis is a disease found in poultry caused by parasitic protozoa, namely Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), which may lead to high rates of morbidity and mortality. To prevent coccidiosis, vaccination is required to inactivate and attenuate E. tenella protozoa. One of the compounds applied for attenuation is formaldehyde. Formaldehyde reduces the pathogenicity of an organism by creating rigidity in its structure. As a result, the organism cannot inflict disease and has a higher impact on building antibodies although it is still alive. The current research was an experimental study aimed to determine the formalin potential in attenuation of E. tenella pathogenesis in terms of oocyst production. The present study was conducted using the completely randomized design method. A total number of 25 broiler chickens were applied and their feces were tested to observe oocysts production and clinical symptoms. The obtained data would be analyzed by the ANOVA statistical test. The treatment groups presented clinical symptoms of E. tenella infection. The number of oocysts in treatment group I fluctuated from the lowest number which was zero on day five and then increased by day six, seven, and eight and it has reached the peak with the most significant amount of 4,050,460 oocysts on day nine. The treatment group II with the same condition reached its peak with the highest number of 1,363,160 oocysts on day nine. The treatment group III peaked with the most significant number of 618,960 oocysts on day nine. In addition, the treatment IV group attained the apex with the highest number of 719,480 oocysts on day nine. Meanwhile, the treatment V group reached the highest number of 284,200 oocysts on day nine. The difference in formalin concentration affected the amount of E. tenella oocyst production of broiler chickens. Formalin soaking with a concentration of 1.2% was the most optimal concentration to attenuate E. tenella.
Keywords: Broiler chicken, Eimeria tenella, Formalin, Oocyst.
Diallel Analysis on Breast and Thigh Muscle Traits in the Cross of Three South African Indigenous Chicken Genotypes.
Tyasi TL, Ng’ambi JW, and Norris D.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 116-122, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100015-11
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to estimate carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred chickens produced from three parental populations. A 3 × 3 complete diallel mating system involving three indigenous breeds, namely Potchefstroom Koekoek (P), Venda (V), and Ovambo (O), was used to produce three purebred (P × P, V × V, O × O), three crossbreds (P × O, P × V, O × V) and three reciprocals (O × P, V × P, V × O). The nine genetic groups were reared from hatch to 10 weeks of age in an open house with deep litter. At 10 weeks of age, six chickens per genetic group were randomly selected for slaughter. After slaughtering the breast and thigh muscles samples for analysis of the carcass characteristics (Meat colour, meat pH, and Shear force). The results showed that the Potchefstroom Koekoek breed had higher values in all colour indicators, L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness), compared to the other chicken breeds. The Potchefstroom Koekoek and P × O breed had higher pH values ranging from 5.66 to 6 at two hours post-slaughter and from 5.54 to 6.38 at 24 hours post-slaughter. The pH declines in all the nine genetic groups after two to 24 hours, with the exception of the crossbred P × O, which increased from 6.06 to 6.38. In terms of shear force, the O × P had the highest shear value, ranging from 35.89N to 74.80N, compared to other genetic groups. Potchefstroom Koekoek had normal meat colour and pH, whereas the Venda breed had tougher meat than other genotypes. The results of the present study might be useful for local chicken farmers to improve carcass traits.
Keywords: Crossbred, Meat colour, Meat pH, Purebred, Shear force.
Histopathology Description of Chicken Liver Infected by L2 Toxocara Vitulorum.
Auliyah R, Kusnoto, and Hamid IS.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 123-128, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100016-11
ABSTRACT: Transmission of Toxocara vitulorum Infection causes a decrease in livestock productivity and results in various types of diseases in humans. Chickens are one of the parasitic hosts of toxocariasis which has the potential for transmission of toxocariasis to humans. The main location affected by T. vitulorum larval infection is the liver. The current study aimed to analyze the description of histopathological changes in the liver of broiler chickens infected by L2 Toxocara vitulorum. The present study was a true experiment using a completely randomized design. A total number of 28 broiler chickens aged 14 days were selected as the sample in this study. Samples were infected using L2 Toxocara vitulorum larvae and were grouped in accordance with observations of the 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after the larvae were given to the samples. Toxocara vitulorum larval infection caused changes in histopathological features of broilers chickens. This infection caused hydropic inflammation and degeneration of liver cells, cholangitis, and eventually necrosis of the cells. Exposure to infection over a long period of time can worsen liver cell and other organ damages as well as increasing the potential for the transmission of Toxocara vitulorum larvae.
Keywords: Chicken, Histopathology of liver, Infection, Toxocara vitulorum.
Effects of Red and Blue Light during the Incubation of Turkey Eggs on Hatchability Performance and Expression Pattern of Some Myogenic Regulatory Genes.
Abd El Naby WSH, Basha HA, Ibrahim SE, and Abo-Samaha MI.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 129-135, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100017-11
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different light colors on hatching potential traits, including egg weight loss, scientific and commercial hatchability, mortality percentages, hatching wight as well as mRNA expression levels of some muscle growth marker genes (Myogenin, MyoD1, and FGF2) of pectoralis muscle in hatched and non-hatched non pipped Black Bronze turkey chicks. A total of 1500 hatching Black Bronze turkey eggs were assigned equally to three incubation treatment groups, namely dark (control group), red, and blue LED light (treated groups) for 25 days of the incubation period. Results indicated that colored lighting stimuli (red and blue) significantly affected hatching capability. This issue could also affect the expression of muscle growth marker genes in hatched and non-hatched non pipped turkey chicks. Incubation of turkey eggs under red or blue LED light showed an insignificant effect on mortality percentages. It can be concluded that the use of a red or blue light system during turkey eggs’ incubation could improve hatchability via upregulating the expression of muscle growth marker genes.
Keywords: Hatchability, Incubation, Light color, Marker Gene expression, Turkey
Morphobiometric Characteristics and Biodiversity of Indigenous Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) in Benin.
Orounladji BM, Tozo SK, and Chrysostome CAAM.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(1): 136-150, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100018-11
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to describe the morphobiometric characteristics of indigenous guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) populations in Benin. The current study was carried out on 1320 (529 males and 791 females) adult (at least 24 weeks old) indigenous guinea fowls from three climatic zones (Sudanian, Sudano-Guinean, and Guinean) of Benin. Each guinea fowl was subjected to a direct phenotypic description, biometric measurements, and photography. The results showed that the plumage coloration of indigenous guinea fowl in Benin was significantly diverse, but the most widespread plumage colors were pearl grey (30%), black (29.5%), and cinnamon (9.8%). The most common beak colors were grey (64.9%) and yellow-orange (24.8%). The eyes were predominantly black-white (67.1%). Grey-orange (33.7%), grey (32%), and black-orange (21%) colorations were more represented on the shanks with wattles relatively dominated by red-white (59.4%) and white-red (30.5%). The average live weight of guinea fowl was 1.34 kg in males which was 4.38% heavier than females. All the biometric measurements were significantly higher in males. The live weights of guinea fowl in the Sudanian zone (1.40 0.18 kg) were higher than those of guinea fowl found in the Sudano-Guinean zone (1.27 0.24 kg) and Guinean zone (1.33 0.28 kg). Principal Component Analysis indicated that three distinct groups of guinea fowl can be formed based on their biometric measurements (live weight, chest circumference, body length, drumstick length, shank length, shank diameter, and wingspan). The phenotypes’ diversity was relatively abundant (1-Hill: 0.69) in all climatic zones. The phenotypic biodiversity observed in the populations of indigenous guinea fowl in Benin can guide farmers to select specific phenotypes to meet consumer preferences.
Keywords: Benin, Biodiversity, Climatic zone, Indigenous guinea fowl, Phenotypic characteristic.
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