Volume 5 (3); September 25, 2015 [XML]
Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella in Poultry Farms of Mauritius.
Phagoo L, Neetoo H.
J. World's Poult. Res. 5(3): 42-47; pii: S2322455X1500007-5
ABSTRACT: The increased prevalence of Salmonella contamination in poultry has gained considerable scientific attention during the last few decades. Poultry is one of the most common reservoirs of Salmonella and contamination of poultry products can occur during the different stages of poultry production. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella in poultry and poultry products in Mauritius. Thirty poultry samples were analyzed for Salmonella using traditional culturing, serological and PCR assays. The isolates were then tested for resistance against five antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin and tetracycline) using the disc diffusion susceptibility test. Serotyping showed positive agglutination for Salmonella using polyvalent Anti-O and Anti-H antisera. Out of the 30 samples tested, only 5 samples were confirmed as Salmonella. It was found that 72% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The frequency of antibiotic resistance ranked in the following order: tetracycline (100%), erythromycin (80%), streptomycin (80%), chloramphenicol (60%) respectively. However, 2 out of 5 isolates were susceptible to ampicillin. The findings of this study strongly indicated that antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. observed in this study are comparable to patterns of other countries.
Key words: Salmonella, Poultry, Antibiotic, Resistance, Pattern
Tetracycline Residues in Intensive Broiler Farms in Upper Egypt: Hazards and Risks.
Swafy Abdel-Mohsein H, Mohamed Mahmoud MA, Abdel-Hafez Ibrahim A.
J. World's Poult. Res. 5(3): 48-58; pii: S2322455X1500008-5
ABSTRACT: Antibiotics are used in poultry farms to enhance growth, feed efficiency and reduce diseases. Additionally, prophylactic treatment is common during periods of stress. Tetracyclines are the most commonly used antimicrobials in food-producing animals. In Egypt veterinary antibiotics are easily accessible with the increased intensive poultry production therefore, this study was conducted to estimate tetracyclines' residue in poultry tissues collected from broiler farms in Upper Egypt. Four members of tetracycline group; Oxytetracycline (OTC), Tetracycline (TC), Doxycycline (DOC) and Chlortetracycline (CTC) were evaluated in 282 samples (muscle, liver and kidney samples)using HPLC. OTC residue was detected in 50, 100 and 93 % of muscle, liver and kidney samples, respectively, while TC residue could be detected in 69, 72 and 86 %, respectively. For DOC and CTC, none of the analyzed samples showed value below their corresponding limit of detection. OTC, DOC and TC highest levelswere recorded in liver;7.23, 20.43 and 1.06µg/g, respectively followed by that of the kidney samples.The residues in all muscle and liver samples were higher than the maximum residue limits of both FAO and FDA reports for DOC. Furthermore, muscle and liver samples exceeded these guideline limits for CTC and OTC, respectively. Health risk of tetracyclines' residue for Egyptian population was estimated to ensure the hygienic fitness for secure consumption. In both adults and kids, the assessed risk for DOC in muscle, liver and kidney was distinctively. The assessed risk of OTC residue in liver and CTC in muscle in adults was also distinctively. Moreover, the assessed risk of TC in Kids for muscle and liver was considerable. So, the potential health hazard for Egyptian population was high from consumption of poultry edible especially liver containing high level of DOC and OTC.
Keywords: Intensive farms, Antibiotics, Residue, Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Chlortetracycline.
Phenotypic Characteristics of Pasteurella Multocida Isolated From Commercial Chickens Affected By Fowl Cholera in Jos, Nigeria.
Yakubu D, Moshood R, Paul A, Blessing O, Lola O.
J. World's Poult. Res. 5(3): 59-63; pii: S2322455X1500009-5
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to isolate and study the phenotypic characteristics Pasteurella multocida organism recovered from commercial chicken with cases of fowl cholera in Jos, Nigeria. A total of 2000 samples consisting of bone marrow, heart, liver, lung and spleen (400 each) were collected from 400 clinically sick chickens for the isolation of P. multocida. Swab from each sample was cultured on 7% defibrinated sheep blood, MacConkey and casein sucrose yeast agar. Presumptive colonies of P. multocida were subjected to biochemical characterization and Microbact test. Disk diffusion method was employed to test for the sensitivity of the 12 P. multocida isolates confirmed by biochemical and Microbact test. The 12 isolates of P. multocida were tested for their sensitivity against 15 different antibiotics. Drug sensitivity test revealed that ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and gentamicin were (100%) highly effective against the 12 P. multocida isolates. High resistance of P. multocida was recorded for ampicillin 91.7%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 83.3% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 66.7%. It was concluded that biochemical characterization, Microbact test and antibiotic susceptibility test are essential for quick diagnosis and the selection of appropriate antibiotic agents for the treatment of fowl cholera.
Key words: Characteristics, Chickens, Cholera, Fowl, Jos, Nigeria, Pasteurella
Value Chain Analysis of Botswana Poultry Industry: The Case of Gaborone, Kgatleng, Kweneng and South East Districts.
Masole C, Mphothwe GK, Moreki JC.
J. World's Poult. Res. 5(3): 64-72; pii: S2322455X1500010-5
ABSTRACT: The poultry industry in Botswana has experienced tremendous growth over time and remains the most celebrated example of import substitution, which has resulted in the achievement of national food self-sufficiency. This study evaluated and characterized the structure of poultry value chain in Botswana. Specifically, it identified the actors, linkages, challenges faced by the players; and also assessed the relative importance of specific flows of poultry products. A structured questionnaire was administered to 40 poultry farmers, 10 input dealers, 10 retail stores and 5 Ministry of Agriculture extension staff using a purposive sampling technique. The results showed market access for small-scale farmers was undermined by the increasing complexity of value chain and increased vertical coordination of resources. Therefore, the reality of economies of scale and the need to establish strong marketing links with existing supermarkets by smallholder farmers for a more competitive poultry industry is inevitable. The poultry market structure is dominated by a few large-scale farmers. On a Likert scale of 1 to 4, these farmers scored an average of 3.62 in comparison to 2.60 scored by small-scale farmers, when their working relationship levels with other players were explored. These results implied that large-scale farmers have stronger linkages. The study also found out that poultry industry still faces some challenges that impede its growth and one such challenge is high feed prices. Therefore, policies aimed at supporting the industry players must be developed with a view to ensuring sustainable development of the subsector and enhancing the benefit derived by the player.
Key words: Botswana, Marketing, Poultry Industry, Value Chain, Vertical Coordination
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