Volume 13 (1); March 25, 2023 [Endnote XML for Agris]
|Poultry Management Strategies to Alleviate Heat Stress in Hot Climates: A Review|
Poultry Management Strategies to Alleviate Heat Stress in Hot Climates: A Review
Bhawa Sh, Morêki JC, and Machete JB
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 1-19, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300001-13
ABSTRACT: Heat stress remains a major challenge affecting poultry production in sub-tropical and tropical environments; hence it continues to receive attention. The present study aimed to discuss heat stress and its effects on poultry production and suggests mitigation strategies to combat the effects of increased environmental temperature on poultry performance. Poultry raised in hot climates suffers from heat stress, which reduces meat and egg production, reproductive performance, feed intake, and feed conversion efficiency leading to poor growth rates. Reduced feed intake results in a reduction in meat quality, growth, egg yield, and quality. A decrease in feed utilization efficiency is the major cause of poor growth performance in hot environments. To counteract the negative impacts of high ambient temperatures on the performance of poultry, a wide range of management practices are widely used, including nutrient manipulations (particularly protein and energy), electrolyte and vitamin supplementation, feed form (especially particle size and moisture content), choice feeding, controlled feeding, time of feeding, wet feeding, water management, and use of new breeds that thrive well in hot environments. These management practices help lower heat load and facilitate evaporative cooling, all of which may positively impact poultry performance and health.
Keywords: Choice feeding, Feed conversion efficiency, Heat stress, Poultry production
Adrenal Gland of Poultry: Anatomy, Microscopy, Morphometry, and Histochemistry
Kot T, Tkachuk S, Usenko S, and Prokopenko V.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 20-28, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300002-13
ABSTRACT: The adrenal gland plays a crucial role in poultry’s body. Its hormones affect growth, tissue differentiation, and metabolism regulation, as well as the bird body’s resistance to infections, intoxication, stress, and low temperature. For poultry farming, veterinary medicine, and ornithology, it is of scientific interest to study the morphological features of the adrenal gland of birds. This review aimed to assess poultry adrenal anatomy, microscopy, morphometry, and histochemistry by summarizing research data from various published articles. The structure of the adrenal gland has been morphologically investigated in clinically healthy chickens, ducks, geese, and quails. Data from the anatomical level of the adrenal gland have indicated that the shape of this organ in poultry of different species is not the same. In most cases, the shape of the adrenal gland of poultry is close to an oval, triangle, or pyramid. The color of the adrenal gland of poultry varies from gray to brown, which depends on the tissue saturation of this organ with carotenoids. The mass of the adrenal glands of poultry correlates with their age. The left adrenal gland has higher mass, volume, and length indicators than the right gland. The microscopic structure of the adrenal gland corresponds to the general laws of the structure and function of endocrine organs. However, the adrenal glands of poultry are characterized by class features of its histoarchitectonics. The adrenal capsule contains ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, the cell strands of cortical and medullary tissues are intertwined, and the configuration of these cell strands determines the formation of two or three zones of the adrenal gland. Studies of the adrenal glands of poultry at the cellular level have indicated that cortical tissue is represented by acidophilic cells and medullary tissue by basophilic cells. Depending on the shape and electron density of secretory granules, medullary tissue cells are divided into epinephrine and norepinephrine. Data on morphometric parameters (capsule thickness, area of cortical and medullary tissues, cortical-medullary ratio) of the adrenal gland are not the same and depend on the type, age, gender, and sexual activity of poultry. In conclusion, morphologists have paid great attention to studying the features of the anatomy, microscopy, morphometry, and histochemistry of the adrenal gland in clinically healthy poultry. Therefore, the presented data can be used to assess deviations in the morphofunctional state of the adrenal gland in poultry under the influence of various factors and pathology.
Keywords: Adrenal gland, Anatomy, Morphological features, Histological and cellular levels, Poultry
Thermal Manipulation During Incubation: Effects on Embryo Development, Production Performance, Meat Quality, and Thermal Tolerance of Broiler Chickens
Meteyake HT, Bilalissi A, Kouame YAE, N’nanle O, and Tona K.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 29-40, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300003-13
ABSTRACT: Thermal manipulations during the embryonic period have positive effects on thermotolerance and the productive performance of broilers subjected to acute heat stress. This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of Thermal manipulation during incubation (TMI) on productive performances and thermotolerance of broiler chickens growing in tropical climates. A total of 900 Cobb 500 broiler chicken eggs from a 35-week-old breeder flock were incubated in standard incubation conditions (37.8°C, 60% relative humidity) until day 7, when they were divided into 3 groups (300 eggs per group). The control group (C) was incubated at standard incubation conditions while T6 and T12 groups were subjected to, respectively, 6 hours/day and 12 hours/day of TMI (T° = 39.5°C, relative humidity = 65%, Embryonic day = 7-16). The relative embryo and albumen weight were determined from 10 to 18 days of incubation. The hatching event was checked between 450 and 504 hours of incubation, and egg hatchability, chick quality, and cloacal temperature were also determined. One hundred and twenty-five chicks from each incubation group were transferred to the farm and raised for 6 weeks. During this period, their post-hatch performances were determined. At week 6, blood samples were collected to measure T3, T4, and corticosterone hormone levels. Then, the 6-week-old broilers were slaughtered to determine meat yield and quality. Results showed that the chick’s rectal temperature was significantly reduced in T6 and T12 groups compared to the C group, while hatchability and one-day-old chick weight were not affected. Final body weight and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the T12 group, compared to other groups. Thermal manipulation during incubation for 6 and 12 hours significantly reduced mortality rate and pectoralis major muscle drip loss while it increased muscle pH at 24 hours post-mortem (pH24). Corticosterone, T3, and T4 plasma hormone levels at week 6 were also significantly reduced by TMI. Therefore, exposing hatching eggs to 39.5°C and 65% of relative humidity from days 7 to 16 of incubation for 12 hours/day is recommended for the poultry industry in tropical climates.
Keywords: Chronic heat stress, Fast-growing broilers, Hatching and post-hatch performances, Thermal manipulation, Thermotolerance, Meat quality
Identification of Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Domestic Chickens (Gallus domesticus) Using the 16S rRNA Gene Method
Husain DR, Wardhani R, Ningsih FS, and Gani F.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 41-47, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300004-13
ABSTRACT: The intestines of domestic poultry (Gallus domesticus) are one of the potential sources of probiotic bacteria that can produce antibacterial agents. The objective of this study was to identify the types of probiotic bacteria obtained from the digestion of domestic poultry using the molecular analysis method of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Observations were conducted on colony morphology, gram staining, biochemical tests, and antibacterial activity using the diffusion agar method. Molecular analysis of DNA extraction was carried out, followed by the amplification of samples using a 16S rRNA universal primer. Dielectrophoresis and sequencing were performed on the 16S rRNA gene. The identification of morphological observations, gram staining, and biochemical tests showed that probiotic bacteria isolates, including Gram-positive, rod-shaped, rounded colony form, flat elevation, entire nonmotile edge, and catalase-negative, could ferment all carbohydrate content in the TSIA medium. The antibacterial potential was also found in probiotic bacteria, as evidenced by the inhibition zone formed in the test. The results of the bacterial gene sequences of PaTa5 probiotic bacterial isolates had a similarity of 98.37% with Lactobacillus plantarum. These findings indicated the presence of some bacteria species that have antibacterial activity in the intestines of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).
Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, Native chicken, Probiotic, 16S rRNA
Impact of Prebiotic Supplementation on Productive Performance, Carcass Traits, and Physiological Parameters of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density Condition
Karar EMH, Atta AMM, Gharib HBA, and El-Menawey MAA.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 48-60, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300005-13
ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of increasing stocking density, prebiotic supplementation, and the interactions on broiler chicken performance and some physiological parameters. A total of 912 one-day-old chickens were used in this study, and they were randomly divided into six groups with 4 replicates each. The experiment included three levels of stocking densities (10, 13, and 15 broiler chicken/m2) in 6 groups. Groups 1, 3, and 5 were maintained without prebiotic supplementation, while groups 2, 4, and 6 received a diet supplemented with prebiotics in water (1cm/liter). Reducing stocking densities and adding prebiotics improved body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, oxidative stress parameters (total antioxidant capacity), and European production efficiency factor, while decreasing malondialdehyde levels. On the other hand, stocking density and prebiotic supplementation did not affect dressing percentage, the relative weight of giblet parts, hind part, front part, and lymphoid organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius). In conclusion, adding prebiotics at 1 cm/liter (Mannan-oligo saccharide and B-Glucan) can partially mitigate the negative effects of high stocking density on production performance, physiological and oxidative stress parameters, and European production efficiency factor.
Keywords: Antioxidant biomarkers, Broiler chicken, β-glucan, Mannan oligosaccharide, Oxidant, Prebiotic, Stocking density
Effects of Black pepper, Turmeric, and Fennel on Essential and Non-essential Chemical Contents of Egg
Samantaray L and Nayak Y.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 61-70, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300006-13
ABSTRACT: The use of essential oils (EOs) in animal feeding has gained attention as a potential antibiotic growth promoter replacement over the past two decades. The current study aimed to determine the impact of three feed additives, namely black pepper, turmeric, and fennel, on the productivity of laying hens, the chemical composition, and macro- and microelement content in layer eggs. A total of 280 chicks aged 75 days were randomly divided into 7 treatments (5 replicates of 8 chicks). One treatment group was provided as the unsupplemented control. The other six treatment groups, namely D0 (basal diet [BD] control), D1 (BD + 1% of black pepper), D2 (BD + 1% of turmeric), D3 (BD + 1% of fennel), D4 (BD + 0.5% of black pepper + 0.5% of turmeric), D5 (BD + 0.5% of black pepper + 0.5% of fennel), D6 (BD + 0.5% of turmeric + 0.5% of fennel) were supplemented with varying levels of phytobiotics. The result of the study indicated that the egg weight, Hen-day-production (HDP), egg quality, and haugh unit significantly improved with a combined supplementation of phytobiotics (D4, D5, and D6 diets) when compared with the control. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition of eggs. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer analysis of eggs revealed the presence of 17 significant elements, including phosphorous, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and bromine. The study findings showed that the combined supplementation of phytobiotics lowered K and Cl, whereas Zn, Ca, S, and Cu contents positively increased in hen eggs by including phytobiotic in the diet. In conclusion, the EOs of phytobiotics as dietary supplementation at 1% and 0.5% could improve the HDP, egg weight, and egg mass, including nutrient elements in the egg.
Keywords: Egg, Essential oil, Hen, Mineral, Phytobiotic
Effects of a Vitamins D and C Supplement on Performance, Hatchability and Blood Profiles of Broiler Breeders
Setiyaningsih N, Sumiati, Jayanegara A, and Wardani WW.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 71-80, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300007-13
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in controlling Calcium and Phosphor homeostasis, bone mineralization, and modulation of immune responses. Vitamin C is a cofactor of enzymatic reactions with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties to prevent and repair damage to cells in the body from exposure to free radicals and the immune system. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of 25(OH)D3 with vitamin C at different doses on broiler breeders’ blood profile, egg quality, and hatchability. The adaptation process before collecting the data was 2 weeks. A total of 6200 females and 620 male broiler breeders in the laying period aged 32-46 weeks were divided into 4 treatment groups with 5 replicates (each peach contained 310 female and 31 male breeders). The treatments included control as T0 (0 g/ton Nutricell HyC®), T1 (100 g/ton Nutricell HyC®), T2 (200 g/ton Nutricell HyC®), T3 (400 g/ton Nutricell HyC®) supplemented in feed. The observed variables were performance in breeding farms and hatcheries. The treatments with experimental doses indicated significant differences in the performance of broiler breeders, including feed intake, body weight, egg weight, egg mass, hen day production, hen house production, feed conversion ratio, and parameters of blood profile. The results showed a significant difference between the treatments and the control group in terms of hatch performance, clear eggs, exploding eggs, hatchability eggs, fertile eggs, salable chicks, and hatching of fertile eggs. However, no significant effects on fertility, culling of chicks, and embryonic mortality in the treatment groups were indicated. In conclusion, Nutricell HyC® with a dose of 400 g/ton in feed has indicated the best result in breeding farm and hatchery performance of broiler breeders in the laying period.
Keywords: Blood profile, Broiler breeder, Calcidiol (25(OH)D3), Nutricell HyC®, Performance, Vitamin C
Mycotoxins and Heavy Metals of Poultry Feeds from the Centre, Littoral, and Western Regions of Cameroon
Keutchatang FDPT, Mafogang B, Kamgain ADT, Nguegwouo E, Tene HM, Ntsama ISB, Nama GM, and Kansci G.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 81-88, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300008-13
ABSTRACT: Heavy metals are a group of elements that could be found in poultry feeds and influence poultry production. Poultry feed generally consists of agricultural products, such as maize, groundnuts, and wheat, which may also be contaminated by mycotoxins. The use of mycotoxins and heavy metals contaminated feed in the poultry sector might represent a potential source of cross-contamination for humans. This study aimed to analyze total aflatoxins (AFs), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in poultry feed from the Centre, Littoral, and Western regions of Cameroon. In this order, six local broiler feeds, six local layer feeds, and three imported layer feeds were randomly collected from each region and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry for heavy metals and competitive indirect ELISA for mycotoxins. The results indicated that all feed samples contained the analyzed mycotoxins and heavy metals. The ranges for the mean concentrations of mycotoxins were 3.5-19.7, 2.7-19.3, 0.8-1.1 µg/kg for AFs, AFB1, and OTA, respectively. They were globally below the established regulated limits (20 µg/kg for AFs, 10 µg/kg for AFB1 and 5 µg/kg for OTA). The bulk layer feed from the Littoral region had the highest lead (995.8 ± 0.4 µg/kg) and cadmium (3.3 ± 0.0 µg/kg) concentrations. The average concentration of lead was above the permissible limit (10 µg/kg). Bulk broiler feed from the Littoral region scored the highest concentration of arsenic (2819.4 ± 0.1 µg/kg) above the permissible limit (500 µg/kg). Bulk broiler feed from the Centre region showed the highest concentration of mercury (5.6 ± 0.0 µg/kg) although lower than the permissible limit of 100 µg/kg. This study demonstrates that there are potential safety issues associated to poultry feeds used in some regions of Cameroon. It suggests a possible low productivity of poultry and health issues for consumers.
Keywords: Aflatoxin, feed, Contamination, Heavy metals, Ochratoxin A, Poultry
Carcass and Internal Organs Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Soybean Diet
Ekeocha AH, Aganga A A , Emerue P C, and Akinsoyinu OV.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 89-95, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300009-13
ABSTRACT: Soybean (Glycine max) is a principal vegetable protein source in the animal feed industry in Nigeria, including the poultry feed industry, but because of the fact that it contains various anti-nutritional factors, the raw full-fat cannot be used in poultry nutrition. The present study was carried out to examine the carcass, and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed a soybean diet. A total of eight hundred and four unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens (Arbor Acre) with an average weight of 45 ± 1.1 g were used in 56 days feeding trial to observe the effect of different processing methods of soybean on broiler chicken carcass and organs characteristics including; liver, spleen, lungs, crop, bile, pancreas, heart, intestine and empty gizzard. There were four dietary treatments (T1-T4), each containing soybean meal as the control diet, dried-boiled soybean, roasted soybean and dried-fermented soybean. Each treatment was replicated three times with 67 broiler chickens per replicate, giving 201 broiler chickens per treatment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design. The starter diet was fed for 4 weeks and the finisher diet for 4 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, 15 broiler chickens were randomly selected for sampling and collecting the data. The weight of the internal organs and carcass characteristics showed no significant difference in the treatment groups, but the fermented method showed the highest value in the live weight (2075.00 g), eviscerated weight (1532.46 g), and breast weight (483.72 g) compared to other carcass parameters in other treatments including the control diet. It is, therefore, concluded that for optimal broiler growth, the fermented processing method of soybean is recommended.
Keywords: Broilers chicken, Carcass characteristic, Diet, Internal organ, Processed soybean
Investigating the Preventive Effect of Herbal Medicine (Allium sativum, Artemisia annua, and Quercus infectoria) against Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens
Ghaniei A, Ghafouri SA, Sadr S, and Hassanbeigi N.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 96-102, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300010-13
ABSTRACT: Coccidiosis is a critical disease in the poultry industry worldwide. Producers apply different strategies to control and prevent this disease. Herbal drugs are suitable remedies for reducing losses associated with coccidiosis in poultry. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an herbal mixture in preventing coccidiosis. A total of 160 broiler chickens were divided into four treatment groups, with five replicates for each. Experimental infection of all groups, except group D, was carried out with mixed Eimeria species (E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. brunetti, and E. maxima) on day 14. Broiler chickens in group A were given an herbal mixture (75% Quercus infectoria, 16% Artemisia annua, and 9% Allium sativum) as feed additives during the rearing period, and group B was treated with Monensin. No treatment was applied to group C after the chickens were experimentally infected with mixed Eimeria spp. Group D was used as the negative control since chickens in this group were not infected or sick during the experiment. Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate, intestinal lesion scoring, and oocyst count per gram (OPG) were evaluated in this study. The results of the present study revealed that the highest mean body weight was gained in group D, followed by chickens in group A. The best FCR results were attributed to chickens in group D, followed by group B. In this study, both drugs decreased mortality rate, intestinal lesion scores, and OPG in the treated chickens. In conclusion, this herbal mixture can reduce coccidial lesions.
Keywords: Broiler, Coccidiosis, Herbal mixture, Prevention
Processing of Sargassum binderi Seaweed for Supplementation in Poultry Diet
Dewi YL, Yuniza A, Nuraini, Sayuti K, and Mahata ME.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 103-111, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300011-13
ABSTRACT: Sargassum binderi has been potentially used as laying hen feed since it contains bioactive compounds useful for poultry health. In addition, the high alginate content of S. binderi has made it inappropriate for the poultry diet. Therefore, the alginate content should be reduced before its use in poultry feed. This study aimed to reduce the alginate of S. binderi for use as laying hen feed. The experiment was performed in two phases in a completely randomized design. The first phase included heated S. binderi in the autoclave and the second phase entailed the immersion of S. binderi in whiting filtrate. The treatments in the physical method contained a control group, and four treatment groups heating for 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. The treatments in the chemical method had a control group and four treatment groups with immersion periods of 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours. Each treatment was repeated five times, and the investigated parameters were crude protein, total dry matter, organic matter, ash, and alginate, respectively. The heating durations of S. binderi in an autoclave and different immersion periods of S. binderi in whiting filtrate did not significantly affect total dry matter, organic matter, ash, alginate, and crude protein. The results of this study showed that physical treatment (heat treatment) and chemical treatments (whiting filtrate immersion) did not have a significant effect on the alginate content, crude protein, ash, dry matter, and organic matter.
Keywords: Alginate, Heating, Laying hen, Sargassum binderi, Whiting filtrate
Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens: Isolation, Identification, Typing, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Eid NM, Ahmed EF, Shany SAS, Dahshan AM, and Ali A.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 112-119, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300012-13
ABSTRACT: Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a common worldwide poultry disease caused by the bacterium of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) which has significant economic losses in the poultry industry as well as the cost of treatment and preventive measures. The current study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of NetB toxin positive in C. perfringens on different farms in Egypt. In the years 2020 and 2021, on industrial broiler farms (15-45 days- old), 100 intestinal samples were collected consisting of 30 healthy Ross broiler chickens and 70 unhealthy Ross broiler chickens. Culture and biochemical characterization (Catalase, urease, sugar fermentation, gelatin liquefaction, nitrate reduction, and lecithinase reaction tests) confirmed that C. perfringens was isolated at a rate of 10% (3/30) from apparently healthy broiler chickens and 40% from unhealthy broiler chickens. Thirty-one isolates were tested for toxigenicity and typing by ELISA kits and the results showed that 80% of the isolates from unhealthy broiler chickens were C perfringens type A alpha-toxin (toxigenic), 20% were non-toxigenic, and 66.7% isolates from apparently normal broiler chickens were toxigenic. The same thirty-one (44%) C. perfringens isolates were detected by PCR to investigate the presence of the NetB toxin gene in apparently healthy and unhealthy broilers and subsequently detect the role of NetB toxin in inducing NE. Of the samples, 82% of the isolates from unhealthy chicks were found to incode NetB gene, while none of the isolates from healthy broiler chickens had NetB. Clostridium perfringens showed sensitivity to amoxicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and ampiclox, intermediate for ofloxacin, and high resistance to cephalexin, streptomycin, colistin sulfate, erythromycin, sulfa trimethoprim, gentamycin, and oxytetracycline. The present study revealed the importance of NetB gen in the appearance of clinical signs of NE in broiler chickens.
Keywords: Alpha toxin, Antibiotic sensitivity test, Clostridium perfringens, Necrotic enteritis, NetB
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Vitamin E on Growth Performance and Immune System of Broiler Chickens
Sadiq RK, Abrahimkhil MA, Rahimi N, Banuree SZ, and Banuree SAH.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 120-126, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300013-13
ABSTRACT: As a potent antioxidant, Vitamin E may lessen the potentially harmful consequences of such oxidative stress to protect broilers against immune-pathological damage. Broiler chicken growth and viability are enhanced by Vitamin E supplementation. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Vitamin E dietary supplementation on broiler chickens’ growth performance and health status. A total of 48 one-day-old Ross chicks were randomly divided into two groups of control and treatment (supplementation of Vitamin E at a dose of 300 mg/kg diet) with three replicates per group. The study included an equal number of Ross breed chicks and Vitamin E dosage in two trials on two different dates (January and March, 2022). In both trials, the obtained results indicated no significant changes in weight gain in the control and treatment groups. In both trials, there were no significant differences in the spleen weight of the control and treated groups; however, from day 1 to 28 of the second trial, the bursa of Fabricius was heavier in the treated group than in the control group. Additionally, Vitamin E had no significant effects on the mitogenic responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and Concanavalin A (Con A). Dosages of 20 and 10 µl for both PHA and Con A did not significantly affect the rate of pure lymphocyte proliferation in chicks fed 300 mg Vitamin E /kg feed. Cell-mediated immunity did not differ significantly between the two trials. The percentages of CD4, CD8, Bu1, and MHCII molecules in the spleen and cecal tonsil of the chicks that received Vitamin E 300 mg/kg feed did not change significantly. The antibody titers against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease vaccines showed no significant differences. On day 42, there was a trend toward an increase in antibody titer in the case of the Newcastle disease vaccine. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg of Vitamin E added to the diet did not improve growth performance and immunity in broiler chicks.
Keywords: Broiler chicken, Growth performance, Immune system, Vitamin E
|Effects of Lactobacillus-Fermented Feed on Production Performance and Carcass Quality of Broiler Chickens|
Effects of Lactobacillus-Fermented Feed on Production Performance and Carcass Quality of Broiler Chickens
Palupi R, Lubis FNL, Pratama ANT, and Muhakka.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 127-135, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300014-13
ABSTRACT: The quality of broiler chicken carcasses is greatly influenced by feed management and the number of nutrients digested in the digestive tract that will be utilized for optimal meat production. The study aimed to determine the effect of feeding fermented feed at different times on the production performance and quality of broiler chicken carcasses. The number of day-old chicks used in this study was 180 broiler chickens strain Cobb. This study was carried out experimentally using a complete randomized design consisting of four treatments and five replications. Each treatment carried out in this experiment consisted of a different length of time, namely feeding for 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks. Experimental parameters included feed consumption, weight gain, and ration conversion. In addition, the carcass quality was investigated as live weight, carcass percentage, and percentage of broiler chicken abdominal fat. The results showed that the longer the time of fermentation feed significantly increased feed consumption by 40.07% and increased 13.77% weight gain, as well as decreased ration conversion by 25.33%. Furthermore, the same results were also obtained regarding live weight by 17.80% and increased percentage of the carcass by 8.84%, while the percentage of abdominal fat decreased by 12.90%. It can be concluded that the provision of fermented feed for 5 weeks can improve the production performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens.
Keywords: Broiler chicken, Carcass quality, Fermented feed, Performance
|Effects of Sex and Rearing Season on Body Weight Gain and Growth Curve Parameters of Local Chickens in Niger|
Effects of Sex and Rearing Season on Body Weight Gain and Growth Curve Parameters of Local Chickens in Niger
Guisso Taffa A, Hamani B, Moula N, Issa S, Mahamadou Ch, and Detilleux J.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 136-142, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300015-13
ABSTRACT: Local chicken breeding is widespread in Niger, a country with harsh environmental conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sex, temperature, and hygrometry variations on the body weight gain and growth curve of local Nigerien chickens. Two groups of local chickens were followed from hatching to 20 weeks of age. The first and second groups consisted of 96 and 124 chickens, respectively. Three seasons were identified based on continuously recording ambient temperature and humidity over a year. The dry and warm seasons (February, March, April, and May), the wet and warm seasons (June, July, August, and September), and the dry and cold seasons (October, November, December, and January). The average hatch weight was about 24 g, and monthly body weight gains ranged from 100 to 360 g. Asymptotic weights were 2214.02 ± 69.94 g and 1776.93 ± 63.57 g for roosters and 1380.25 ± 25.96 g and 1433.08 ± 71.24 g for hens. The sexual maturity rates indicate that hens are more precocious than roosters. Sex and season had significant impacts on the growth performance of the chickens. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the optimal time to raise local chickens in rural Niger is from June to January, and males are better candidates for meat production.
Keywords: Growth curve, Hygrometry, Local chicken, Temperature, Weight gain
|Effects of Storage Time on Ostrich Egg Quality|
Effects of Storage Time on Ostrich Egg Quality
Moreki JC, Mosarwa DF, Makore J, and Mosweu N.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 143-148, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300016-13
ABSTRACT: Egg quality is considered as both internal egg quality that focuses on the egg content and external egg quality that focuses on the eggshell. This study investigated the effect of storage time on ostrich egg quality. A total of 15 ostrich eggs were obtained from Dibete Ostrich Multiplication Unit and subjected to five storage periods (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days) at room temperature (18-25oC). The measured parameters were egg weight, egg length, egg width, yolk weight, albumen weight, albumen height, yolk height, shell weight, egg specific gravity (ESG), egg surface area, Haugh Unit (HU), egg shape index, albumen ratio, shell ratio, yolk ratio and weight of egg contents. Results showed that storage time did not influence egg weight for eggs stored for 0, 3, and 6 days. On the other hand, storage time significantly affected egg weight for eggs stored at 9 and 12 days. The albumin ratio for egg storage duration had no significant impact on eggs held for 0, 3, or 6 days. However, the albumen ratios of eggs held for 9 and 12 days were impacted by the storage period compared to those stored for 0, 3, and 6 days. The HU for the eggs stored for 0, 3, and 6 days was not affected by storage time. On the contrary, the HU for eggs stored for 9 and 12 days was significantly impacted by storage time as the HU decreased with the prolonged storage time, compared to those stored for 0, 3, and 6 days. The results of this study suggest that ostrich eggs should not be stored for more than 6 days at ambient temperature to avoid egg quality degradation.
Keywords: Cuticle, Egg quality, Ostrich eggs, Storage time
|Isolation and Characterization of Fowl Adenoviruses Associated with Hydro-pericardium Syndrome from Broiler Chickens in Egypt|
Isolation and Characterization of Fowl Adenoviruses Associated with Hydro-pericardium Syndrome from Broiler Chickens in Egypt
Hussein E, Anwar NF, ElsebaeyHSh, Abdelmagid MA, Abo Elkhair M, and Mahana O.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 149-160, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300017-13
ABSTRACT: One of the most prominent viral diseases affecting the poultry industry is hydropericardium syndrome caused by fowl adenoviruses. Hydropericardium syndrome has recently led to significant economic losses in the Egyptian poultry sector. Many outbreaks of hydropericardium syndrome have been documented across the country in the last few years. This research examined the epidemiology and molecular characterization of fowl adenoviruses in broiler chickens in Egypt. Samples were taken from 26 outbreaks of commercial broiler chicken farms in the Beheira and Menofia governorates, Egypt, from January 2021 to March 2022. Adenoviruses genomes were detected in cloacal swabs of 10 flocks using polymerase chain reaction. Clinically, infected broiler chickens (Cobb, Ross, Indian River, Modified-Avian, and Arbor Acres) showed depression, ruffled feathers, retarded growth, and ascites, with mortality rates of 10-28%. The most common postmortem lesions were hydropericardium, yellowish enlarged liver with ecchymotic hemorrhages, pancreatitis, and enteritis. Histopathologically, intranuclear inclusion bodies, commonly basophilic type, were scattered in the hepatocyte, proventriculus, duodenum, kidney, pancreas, and spleen. In addition, depletion of lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and the thymus was observed. Seven samples were selected for gene sequencing of the loop 1 region of the hexon gene. The sequence analysis revealed that all samples were identical and similar to fowl adenoviruses species D serotype 2/11, suggesting that this serotype was the predominant fowl adenoviruses circulating in the study location in the last two years. Further studies are required to address the pathogenicity of isolated fowl adenoviruses and evaluate the vaccine used to control fowl adenoviruses in Egypt.
Keywords: Fowl adenoviruses, Hexon, Hydropericardium syndrome, Phylogenetic analysis, Polymerase chain reaction
|The Efficiency of Urtica dioica Extract in Feeding of Laying hens|
The Efficiency of Urtica dioica Extract in Feeding of Laying Hens
Bagno O, Shevchenko S, Shevchenko A, Izhmulkina E, Prokhorov O, Ulrich E, and Berezina A.
J. World Poult. Res. 13(1): 161-167, 2023; pii: S2322455X2300018-13
ABSTRACT: Currently, poultry specialists are working hard to find feed additives of natural origin. Medicinal plants are a source of a wide range of biologically active compounds with multifunctional effects, including antimicrobial ones. To understand the potential use of various medicinal plants and their extracts in poultry farming, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of feeding different doses of water-ethanol extract of Urtica dioica (Urtica dioica L.) on the egg productivity of laying hens. A total of 300 laying hens were divided to control and five experimental groups of chickens, each with 5 replicates. During the entire experiment, the laying hens of the control group were fed complete compound feeds according to the egg-laying phase, and the chickens of the experimental groups were additionally fed Urtica dioica extract in different doses. The results indicated that feeding laying hens with Urtica dioica extract in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/kg of body weight had a positive effect on their egg productivity. An increase in egg production per average laying hen in the experimental groups was 2.6-6.1%, and the intensity of egg production was 2.1-5.4%, compared to the control. However, the feed consumption in all experimental groups decreased. When introducing Urtica dioica extract into full-fledged compound feeds for laying hens, there was an increase in the relative egg white content, egg white/egg yolk ratio, and a decrease in relative yolk and shell content. Accordingly, it is suggested to include Urtica dioica extract at a dose of 15 mg/kg in the diet of laying hens which can improve economic efficiency and egg parameters.
Keywords: Chemical composition, Egg morphology, Egg production, Feed conversion, Medicinal plant
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