Genomic Analysis Reveals Strong Signatures of Selection in Guangxi Three-Yellow Chicken in China.
Liao Y, Sun J, Huang Y, Wei F, Mo G, Zellmer L and Liao DJ.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 407-428, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000048-10
ABSTRACT: Much like other indigenous domesticated animals, Guangxi Three-yellow chickens (GX-TYC) in China have experienced strong selective pressure, and show specific phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology and behavior. To identify genomic footprints or selection signatures left by artificial selection during domestication of GX-TYC, the whole genomes of 12 GX-TYC hens were sequenced to executed selective sweep analyses and gene functional enrichment analysis (Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways). A total of 10.13 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and 842,236 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (Indels) were found. Forty-six windows showed a Z score of heterozygosity (ZHp) lower than -5, which potentially were considered to be positively selected regions. Gene annotation identified 55 genes in these regions. Selection signatures were found mainly on the SSC5, SSC8, SSC23 and SSCZ. GO and KEGG analyses revealed that these genes were related to growth, immune responses as well as carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolisms. In addition, two genes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 2 were enriched into four signaling pathways, three of which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and insulin signaling. SHC3, FANCC and PTCH1, in combination with FB1 and FBP2, were clustered together in a region of chromosome Z, and thus might have been selected together. The results have uncovered some genetic footprints of chicken domestication, providing not only an important resource for further improvements of fowl breeding, but also a useful framework for future studies on the genetics of domestic chickens as well as on the phenotypic variations and certain diseases of chickens.
Key words: Chicken; Selective sweeps; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Whole genome resequencing
Effect of Polar and non Polar Extract of Ferula assafoetida Dermanyssus gallinae in vivo and in vitro Conditions.
Ghavami S, Asasi K and Razavi M.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 429-435, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000049-10
ABSTRACT: Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most common arthropods in layers that affects the quality and quantity of egg production. Although there are different synthetic compounds against this mite, but despite these compounds, drug resistance and the presence of these compounds and synthetic compounds in meat and eggs makes that the use of alternative methods, as well as increased use of herbal extracts and essential oils. In the present study, the N-Hexane and Ethanol extracts of Ferula assafoetida were used. GC-MS analysis revealed the constituents of the two extracts. The lethal properties of the extracts were determined by contact toxicity. In this field study, ethanolic extract of Ferula assafoetida was sprayed on laying hens that infected with red mite. The most available compounds of the Ethanol extract and N-hexan extract of Ferula assafoetida were Diethylpyridine and Aurapten respectively in this study. The LC50 of Ethanol extract of Ferula assafoetida was 16 µg/cm3 and in vitro study determined that ethanolic extract of Ferula assafoetida has been able to reduce the red mite population. This study indicated Ethanol extract of Ferula assafoetida could use as a substitute compound against red mite.
Keywords: Polar and nonpolar extract, Ferula assafoetida, Red mite
Effect of Crude Extracts of Edible Mushroom Species of Agaricus bisporus and Auricularia auricula on Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens.
Ardyansyah RH, Nur Adli D, Natsir MH, and Sjofjan O.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 436-442, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000050-10
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Agaricus bisporus and Auricularia auricula crude extracts as feed additives on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The samples included 240 one-day-old chicks randomly divided into 8 dietary treatments, each treatment consisted of 3 replicates with 10 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatment groups were control group (T0), basal diet + zinc bacitracin (T1), basal diets + 0.4% Agaricus bisporus extract (T2), basal diet + 0.8% Agaricus bisporus extract (T3), basal diet + 1.2% Agaricus bisporus extract (T4), basal diet + 0.4% Auricularia auricula extract (T5), basal diet + 0.8% Auricularia auricula extract (T6), and basal diet + 1.2% Auricularia auricula extract (T7). The measured variables included feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and production index. In addition, the study aimed to evaluate the reducing sugars level, antioxidant IC50, and antimicrobial efficacy of mushroom extracts prepared using three different solvents (i.e., water, ethanol, and methanol). The findings indicated that methanolic extract contained higher reducing sugars and had better antimicrobial efficacy. The results of experimental research revealed that mushrooms crude extracts had no significant effects on the growth performance of broiler chickens.
Keywords: Antibiotic, Broiler performance, Extract, Mushroom
Physical Performance of Broiler Chickens Affected by Dietary Biological Additives.
El-Kholy KH, Rakha SM and Tag El-Dein HT.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 443-450, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000051-10
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast as a probiotic, compared to sodium butyrate as an organic acid on the productive performance of broiler chickens, with special attention to their economic efficiency. Therefore, 270 of one-day-old Hubbard broiler chickens were divided into 5 groups. The first group included chickens receiving basal ration without any treatment (and considered as a control group). The second group was composed of chickens treated with 0.2 g SB/kg, the third group embraced chickens treated with 0.3 g SB/kg, the fourth group included chickens treated with 0.2 g SC/kg, and the fifth group consisted of chickens treated with 0.3 g SC/kg. The obtained results showed that administration of sodium butyrate or yeast showed a significant improvement of final body weight (BW), body weight change, feed conversion ratio and performance index from third to fifth weeks of age. Nevertheless, all treated groups showed an insignificant effect in feed intake, compared to control group. Furthermore, the dietary addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected more profitable than sodium butyrate addition. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sodium butyrate and yeast can be successively used as a natural substitute for antibiotic growth-promoting agents in the broiler chickens. Yeast can be considered as the most important alternative followed by sodium butyrate.
Keywords: Carcass, Economic efficiency, Hubbard; Productive, Sodium Butyrate, Yeast.
Effects of Dietary Fermented Soy Isoflavones on Quality of Eggs.
Pancapalaga W, Malik A, Wijaya R and Syahranie J.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 451-455, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000052-10
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to examine the effects of fermented soy isoflavones on the poultry feed towards the quality of eggs. A total of 100 Isa Brown chickens aged 32 weeks were divided into 4 groups and 5 replicates, including T0 (control feed without the provision of fermented soy isoflavones), T1 (feed with 4% of fermented soy isoflavones), T2 (feed with 8% of fermented soy isoflavones), and T3 (feed with 12% of fermented soy isoflavones). The treatments were given for 10 weeks. The observed chemical qualities of eggs included HDL, LDL, isoflavones in egg yolks, physical quality (e.g., their weight and eggshell thickness). All the data were analyzed by using analysis of variance. The results showed that the administration of fermented soy isoflavones in poultry feed had no significant effect on egg weight and eggshell thickness (p> 0.05), but had a significant effect on HDL, LDL, and isoflavones in egg yolk (p< 0.01). Based on the results, it can be concluded that 80 mg/100 g of the fermented soy isoflavones (equivalent to the addition of 12%) in laying hens’ feed would increase the content of isoflavones and egg yolks’ HDL, reduce egg yolks’ LDL, and lead to no significant change in the weight and thickness of eggshells.
Keywords: Feed, Fermented, Isoflavones, laying hens, Soybean
Morphology and Immunohistochemistry of Thymus in Haysex Brown Cross Chickens.
Huralska S, Kot T, Koziy V, Sokolyuk V, and Khomenko Z.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 456-468, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000053-10
ABSTRACT: Thymus plays an important role in the development and regulation of immune responses and other physiological processes. The present study aimed to examine the morphological and immunohistochemical changes of the thymus in Haysex Brown cross chickens with regard to their age. The morphofunctional studies of thymus were performed to determine and analyze age-related changes in anatomical (absolute and relative thymus mass), histological (area of the thymus cortex and medulla, area of connective tissue base, cortex index, number of thymic corpuscles in the lobule), and immunohistochemical (subpopulations of lymphocytes with surface markers CD4+ and CD8+ and their differentiation status) indexes. The study demonstrated that maximum morphological development of thymus could be observed in 20 and 40-day-old chickens. Up to 20 days of age, thymus mass increased proportionally with the chicken body weight. The results indicated that 40-day-old chickens had 1.46 times increase in the cortex index, compared to 20-day-old birds and 1.82 times compared to 8-day-old birds. An increase in the density and number of T-lymphocytes with surface markers (CD4+) and was evident through aging. Regarding aging-associated alternations, the differentiation index (CD4+: CD8+ ratio) reached 1.26±0.09, 1.52±0.25, and 1.56±0.23 in 40, 90, and 110-day-old chickens, respectively. The histological and cell parameters of the thymus in clinically healthy chickens can be used as indicators of normal functioning and to diagnose immunodeficiency in birds.
Keywords: CD8 Positive Lymphocytes, CD4 Positive Lymphocytes, Chickens, Cortex Index, Thymus, Immunohistochemical Characteristics
The Efficacy of Synbiotic Application in Broiler Chicken Diets, Alone or in Combination with Antibiotic Growth Promoters on Zootechnical Parameters.
Syed B, Wein S and Ruangapanit Y.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 469-479, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000054-10
ABSTRACT: In recent years, probiotics and synbiotics have gained considerable interest in poultry feeding as an alternative to antibiotics due to antibiotic resistance concerns. The objective of this dual study was to evaluate the efficacy of synbiotic supplementation alone or in combination with different Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGPs), compared to the untreated control group of broiler chickens production performance. In the first experiment, a total of 1260 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 7 diet treatments, with 6 replicates per diet treatment and 30 birds per replicate over a 42-day period. The diet treatments included a control diet based on corn-soybean without additives (T1), and the diet treatment with bacitracin (BMD 100 ppm, T2), colistin (10 ppm, T3), synbiotic (PoultryStar me, 0.5 kg/t, T4), a combination of synbiotic (0.5 kg/t) and bacitracin (60 ppm, T5), synbiotic (0.5 kg/t) and colistin (5 ppm, T6), synbiotic (0.5 kg/t), bacitracin (60 ppm), and colistin (5 ppm, T7). During the critical period of rearing from hatch to day 10, the synbiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly higher body weight gain than its combination with bacitracin. No other dietary treatment showed a remarkable improvement in the body weight gain, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio, compared to the only synbiotic application (T4) during the entire trial period. The tendency towards an improved feed conversion ratio was observed during the use of symbiotic (T4, 1.87), compared to the control group (T1, 1.93) during the entire trial period. Compared with the control group (T1, 2.78%), broiler mortality was also lower in the synbiotic group (T4, 1.11%). In the second experiment, a total of 1500 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 4 diet treatments; with 15 replicates per diet treatment, and 25 birds per replicate over a 42-day period. The dietary treatments included a control group diet based on corn-soybean without additives (T1), and the treatment diets with bacitracin (BMD 1000 ppm, T2), synbiotic (PoultryStar me, 0.5 kg/t, T3), and a combination of synbiotic (0.5 kg/t) plus bacitracin (BMD 1000 ppm T4). Birds fed antibiotic or synbiotic alone or in a combination had numerically a higher body weight and an average daily gain than the control group. There was a tendency of improvement in the feed conversion ratio during the age of 1-24 days, and throughout the experimental period. The evaluated synbiotic could serve as an effective alternative to AGPs, such as bacitracin and colistin in broiler chicken diets, especially during the first crucial period. The synbiotic can serve this purpose without combining it with AGPs, such as colistin or bacitracin.
Keywords: Antibiotic growth promoter, Broilers, Performance, Synbiotic
Production Performances of Indonesian Native Rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) Supplemented with Germinated Mung Bean Sprouts and Acidifiers in the Diet.
Supartini N, Ihsan MN, Natsir MH, and Isnaini N.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 480-484, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000055-10
ABSTRACT: The research aimed to analyze the production performances of the Indonesian native rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) fed germinated mung bean sprouts and acidifier supplementation in the diet. A total of 24 roosters aged 12 months with an average body weight of 2.29 ± 0.23 kg were used for the research subject. The diet was composed of a basic diet supplemented with 48-hours germinated mung bean sprouts and acidifier, with a basic no supplement diet as a control group. The research was conducted as an in vivo factorial randomized block design with different amounts of germinated mung bean sprouts (0% and 1.8%) and acidifiers (0%, 0.4%, 0.80%, and 1.20%) as the research treatment. Each treatment was performed in triplicate, and the observed production performances include Daily Intake (DI) of feed, Feed Consumption Ratio (FCR), Average Daily Gain (ADG), and Body Weight (BW). All data were analyzed using ANOVA (analysis of variance) and then tested by Tukey’s test to determine significant differences. The results showed that the supplementation of mung bean sprouts and acidifiers did not give any differences from DI, FCR, ADG, and BW of Gallus gallus domesticus. However, the supplementation of germinated mung bean sprouts and acidifiers in the present research showed better overall production performances compared to the control group. The best production performance of the treatments was found at 1.8% germinated mung bean sprout and 1.2% acidifier additive based on the FCR (1.14±0.06) with DI at 91.94±1.11 gram (g)/head, ADG at 305.33±34.93 g/day, and final BW found after 30 days at 2,434.67±155.28 g. It has been concluded that the germinated mung bean sprout and acidifiers supplementation increases the production performance of Gallus gallus domesticus, with longer and higher supplement levels being suggested.
Keywords: Mung bean sprouts, Native chicken, Poultry diet, Production performances
Physiological and Reproductive Responses of Domyati Ducks to Different Dietary Levels of Coconut Oil as a Source of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Laying Period.
El-Kholy KH, Ghonim AIA, Ahmed MA, Gad HA, Ghazal MN, El-Aik MAA and Ali RAM.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 485-492, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000056-10
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of coconut oil (CO) supplementation in the diet to enhance the performance of Domyati ducks. A total number of 300 Domyati ducks (240 females and 60 males) aged 25-week-old were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups of three replicates, each replicate included 5 males and 20 females of Domyati ducks. The groups received CO at 0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% during the experimental period. The results indicated that egg weight, egg number, and egg mass significantly increased in treated groups, compared to the control group. Furthermore, fertility and hatchability percentages were superior in 1.0, and 1.5% CO groups, compared to other experimental groups. Low-density lipoprotein in ducks that received CO was significantly lower than that of the control group. It is concluded that the inclusion of CO at a 1.5% level could be enough and useful for improving the reproductive and physiological performance of Domyati ducks.
Keywords: Blood, Coconut oil, Ducks, Egg, hatchability, Laying period
Isolation, Molecular, and Pathological Characterization of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus among Broiler Chickens in Morocco.
Cheggag M, Zro K, Terta M, Fellahi S, Mouahid M, El Houadfi M, Sebbar G, and Kichou F.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 493-506, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000057-10
ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a contagious viral disease of young chickens that causes immunosuppression, mortality, and growth retardation. This pathology has severely affected the Moroccan poultry industry. The objective of the present study was the isolation, molecular characterization, and histopathology examinations of infectious bursal disease virus collected from 49 suspected farms from different regions of the country from 2013 to 2016. The real-time PCR results indicated that 41 out of 49 farm cases were found positive with a prevalence of 41% for classical virulent IBD virus (IBDV) and 59% for very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Pathological examinations showed the presence of two types of lesions, including acute to subacute lesions with a prevalence of 86%, and the sub-chronic to chronic lesions with a prevalence of 14%. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the hypervariable region of VP2 for 7 vvIBDVs were compared to worldwide IBDV isolates and the findings suggested that it belonged to a group of very virulent strains. Phylogenetically, all the Moroccan vvIBDV field isolates were grouped in the same cluster with Malaysian and European vvIBDV isolates. This report demonstrated the continuous circulation of vvIBDV in commercial poultry farms in Morocco since 2013.
Keywords: Histological investigations, Infectious bursal disease virus, Phylogeny, Morocco, Virulent infectious bursal disease virus, VP2
Circulating Antibodies against Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease in Semi-captive Peacocks in Southwestern Guatemala.
Castillo-Grijalva M, Guerra-Centeno D, Talgi Y, Valdez-Sandoval C, Lepe-López M and Santizo B.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 507-512, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000058-10
ABSTRACT: Avian Influenza and Newcastle disease are the two most important diseases of poultry and are globally considered as threats to public health and economy. There is little information published about these diseases in peacocks and other common backyard poultry in Guatemala. Therefore, an exploratory serosurvey was conducted to determine the presence of circulating antibodies to Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle Disease (ND) viruses in a semi-captive population of peacocks in southwestern Guatemala. Additionally, the circulation of antibodies to these pathogens in backyard chickens, ducks, and turkeys from a neighboring community was explored. Blood samples were obtained from 48 peacocks, 30 chickens, 6 ducks, and 4 turkeys. The samples were processed in the Regional Reference Laboratory for Animal Health, at the Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of San Carlos of Guatemala, located in Guatemala City. Antibodies against AI virus were investigated by Agar Gel Immunodiffusion, and antibodies against ND virus were examined using Hemagglutination Inhibition. No antibodies against AI virus were detected. Most of the samples (97.7%) were negative for antibodies against ND virus, except for two turkeys that carried low antibody titers. The findings of the present study indicate that no virulent strains of AI or ND viruses were circulating in the investigated site.
Keywords: Avian influenza, Epidemiology, Newcastle disease, Serology, Zoonoses
The Processing Effects of Anthocyanins Extracted from Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel on Total Amount of Anthocyanins and SEM Image in Poultry Nutrition.
Mahlil Y, Husmaini, Warnita, Mirzah, Kobayashi M and Endo Mahata M.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 513-519, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000059-10
ABSTRACT: The purpose of present study was to know the effects of different processing of anthocyanin content and scan electron microscope image of anthocyanin of dragon fruit peel in poultry diet. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with different processing like untreated dragon fruit peel or control, physical, chemical, biological, and physical-biological, and each treatment was replicated 4 times. Variables measured were total amount of anthocyanin and anthocyanin image of dragon fruit peel. The results indicated that physical treatment significantly increased anthocyanin content of dragon fruit peel. Furthermore, treated dragon fruit peel with chemical, biological, and combination of physical-biological significantly reduced anthocyanin content. The image of anthocyanin from each treated processing revealed that control image was similar to physical treatment, and it was different from other treatments. The physical treatment was the best method to increase anthocyanin content, and did not change the image of anthocyanin from dragon fruit peel.
Keywords: Anthocyanins, Dragon fruit peel, Processing, Scanning electron microscope, Spectrophotometry
Isolation of Newcastle Disease Virus from Wild Migratory Birds in Egypt.
Mohammed MH, Kandeil A, Alkhazindar M, AbdElSalam ET and Ali MA.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 520-526, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000060-10
ABSTRACT: Surveillance studies for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are critical to monitor the potential spreading of these viruses among wild birds as well as domestic poultry. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of NDV in wild birds in Egypt in 2016. Out of 159 collected samples from eight different species of wild birds, six (3.77%) samples were positive for paramyxoviruses by semi-nested RT-PCR assay based on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. Of six positive samples, four NDVs were successfully isolated in 11-day-old specific-pathogen-free embryonated hens’ eggs. Partial sequences of the fusion gene of the four isolates were amplified using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and fusion genes indicated that the detected NDV viruses in wild birds in Egypt are related to class I NDVs strains. Four Egyptian NDV isolates from wild birds exhibited sequence motif of 111GERQER↓LVG119 at the cleavage site as lentogenic virus in wild birds. Continuous active surveillance may help better monitoring of NDVs circulating in wild birds before newly emerging viruses in domestic poultry.
Keywords: Egypt, Fusion protein, Newcastle disease virus, Wild birds
Effects of Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 on Immunity, Nutrient Transporters and Functional Diversity of Cecal Microbiome of Broiler Chickens in Necrotic Enteritis Challenge.
Bodinga BM, Hayat Kh, Liu X, Zhou J, Yang X, Ismaila A, Soomro RN, Ren Zh, Zhang W and Yang X.
J. World Poult. Res. 10(3): 527-544, 2020; pii: S2322455X2000061-10
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 probiotic and antibiotic enramycin in broiler chickens with Clostridium perfringens induced-Necrotic enteritis on cecal microbial populations, functional diversity, nutrients transporters and cytokines mRNA expression. Day-old broilers (n= 360), Arbor Acre were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments such as control, basal diet fed-group only; antibiotic, basal diet plus enramycin 5 mg/kg; and probiotic group, basal diet plus Bacillus subtilis 2 x109 CFU/g. Antibiotic and probiotic fed groups was challenged with Clostridium perfringens at day1, and from day 14 to day 21. The results of present study showed that broiler chickens supplemented with antibiotic and probiotic significantly exhibited higher abundance of gut beneficial bacteria at the 21 and 35 days of age, while upregulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine enterleukin-10 and secretory immunoglobulin-A. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma were downregulated. Nutrient transporters of Peptide transporter-1, L amino transporter-2 and Cationic amino acid transporter-2 were upregulated in supplemented groups. More so, glucose transporter-2 Sodium glucose transporter-1, Solute carrier family 3, member 1, carbohydrates and vitamin metabolism cofactor enriched in probiotic fed-group, while control group exhibited up-regulation in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma. Overall, supplementation of Bacillus subtilis DMS 32315 reduced the negative impact of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens, and enhanced the gut-microbial community.
Keywords: Antibiotic growth promoter, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Immune response, probiotic
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