Volume 11 (3); September 25, 2021 [in-press]
Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Broiler Chickens Fed with an Encapsulated Blend of a Phytogenic Feed Additive
Syed B, Kesselring J, Sánchez J and Gracia M.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(3): 278-285, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100033-11
ABSTRACT: Phytogenic Feed Additives (PFAs) from herbs, spices, and derived natural or corresponding synthetic chemically defined flavorings have gained momentum due to the rising worldwide ban of Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGPs) in food animals. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a PFA in broiler chickens diets on growth performance and digestibility parameters. A total of 880 male one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments, each with 20 replicates and 22 chickens per replicate. A corn-soybean-based diet was fed for 42 days as a control diet without PFA, and a treatment diet containing a blend of Carvacrol, Thymol, Carvone, Methyl salicylate, and Menthol encapsulated (as PFAs) at 65 g/ton of feed. Chickens supplemented with PFA had a 3.6% higher Body Weight Gain (BWG) during the starter phase (0 to 14 days) than those in the control group (25.9 versus 25.0 g/d) and a 2.9% reduced Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) during the same period, compared to the control group (1.34 versus 1.38). Improved FCR (1.95 versus 2.01) was recorded in the PFA supplemented broiler chickens during the finisher phase (35 to 42 days) as well as throughout the experimental period from 1 to 42 days, compared to the control group (1.60 versus 1.62). In addition, the apparent ileal protein digestibility improved by 3.9% during 42 days, compared to the control group (74.3 vs 71.5%; P = 0.0428). Enhanced ileal protein digestibility and a reduced FCR suggested a cost-effective potential of PFA to improve broiler chickens’ production performance.
Keywords: Broilers, Digestibility, Feed conversion ratio, Performance, Phytogenic feed additive
Serological Detection of Antibodies Against Chlamydophila psittaci Infection in Pet Parrots of Guatemala City
de León-Robles E, Guerra-Centeno D, Brizo-Murillo J, Menéndez-Medina S, Guzmán y Guzmán J, Girón de León F, and Aguilar-Paiz L.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(3): 286-292, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100034-11
ABSTRACT: Avian chlamydiosis (AC), caused by Chalmydophila psittaci (C. psittaci), is a relevant zoonotic disease transmitted to humans through psitassine or pet birds. Guatemala is a megadiverse country where parrots are commonly kept as pets. Considering such a situation and the fact that respiratory diseases are some of the main causes of morbidity in the human population, the epidemiology of AC in pet parrots has not been sufficiently investigated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and frequency of antibodies against C. psittaci in pet parrots in Guatemala City, Guatemala. Blood samples were collected from 100 parrots belonging to 17 species (Amazona auropalliata, A. farinosa, A. autumnalis, A. albifrons, Agapornis roseicollis, Ara macao, A. militaris, Aratinga astec, Brotogeris jugularis, Cacatua alba, Eupsittula canicularis, E. nana, Melopsittacus undulatus, Ninficus hollandicus, Pionus senilis, and Psittacara strenuus) representing 19 of the 20 zones of Guatemala. Imunoglobulins (Ig) G antibodies against C. psittaci were detected using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay tests. The prevalence rate of C. psittaci was reported at 11% (95% CI = 4.87%, 17.13%) indicating the presence of AC pet parrots in Guatemala City. Therefore, Guatemalan sanitary authorities should take some measures and the physicians must consider C. psittaci as a possible cause of a severe respiratory disease condition in people residing in this city.
Keywords: Avian chlamydiosis, Epidemiology, Psittacosis, Public health, Zoonosis
Effects of Different Levels of Moringa oleifera Whole Hydroalcoholic Extract and Seed Powder on the Hatching Rate, Nutritional Value, and Immune Response of Chukar Partridge Eggs
Habibi H, Kohanmoo MA, and Ghahtan N.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(3): 293-301, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100035-11
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different levels of Moringa oleifera whole seed powder (MOWSP) and whole seed hydroalcoholic extract (MOWSE) on biochemical factors including minerals, fatty acids profiles, Haugh units, cholesterol content, immune response, and hatchability rate of the eggs of Chukar partridge. A total of 225 Chukar partridge were randomly divided into five groups with three replicates of 15 birds in each group. MOWSP was provided as a supplement at the rate of 0 g (control), 5 g, and 10 g per each kg of a diet and MOWSE at the rate of 0.5 % and 1% in drinking water. Hatchability rate and Haugh unit were, respectively, increased and decreased in all treatments in comparison to the control group. The highest and the lowest hatchability rates were recorded in the MOWSE-1% and MOWSE-0.5% supplemented groups, respectively. Birds fed with MOWSE-1% had significantly higher Iron levels than birds fed with the control diet. However, copper, zinc, and magnesium levels in the Chukar partridge eggs had no significant change comparing with the control group. Further, the C18:1, C17:0, and C16:0 of eggs were increased in response to the increase of dietary MOWSP supplementation, however, proportions of C18:0 and C18:2 were decreased. We also Recorded data that demonstrates MOWSE-1% increased the antibody titers of Newcastle Disease vaccine on 69 days and MOWSP-1% and MOWSE-1% all increased the titers of Avian Influenza on 59 days. It was concluded that 1% of MOWSP or MOWSE is a beneficial additive for Chukar partridge.
Keywords: Alectoris chukar, Cholesterol, Fatty acids profiles, Hatchability, Minerals
Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus Strains Circulating in Rabbit Population Using Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis n Upper Egypt
Abodalal SEA, Hafez MShA, Abd El-Munem Shosha E, Warda FF, and Hagag NM.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(3): 302-311, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100036-11
ABSTRACT: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a contagious viral disease that threatens rabbit farms locally and globally. The disease causative agent is the RHD virus (RHDV) of the family Caliciviridae. The present study aimed to identify and characterize RHDV strains currently circulating in Upper Egypt provinces. A total of 20 suspected RHDV samples were collected from non-vaccinated rabbit flocks from January to December 2019 in Upper Egypt governorates (New Valley and Assuit), Egypt. The RHDV was confirmed through the hemagglutination test (HA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further characterization of selected 4 isolates was performed by nucleotide sequencing of a partial VP60 gene. All of 11 RHDV RT-PCR-positive samples were positive for HA activity against human RBCs type "O". Based on the nucleotide sequencing, the selected 4 isolates were clustered as RHDV-1 variant strains (G3-G5). The nucleotide sequence identities of the 4 isolates were 94.2-100 %, compared to available RHDV strains from GenBank. In conclusion, the presence of RHDV-1 variant strains was detected and confirmed that threatens the rabbit’s populations in New Valley and Assuit governorates.
Keywords: Upper Egypt, Nucleotide sequencing, Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, VP60
Detection of Avian Influenza Anti-H5 Maternally-derived Antibodies and Its Impact on Antibody-mediated Responses in Chickens after In Vivo Administration of Inactivated H5N9 Vaccine
Woziri AO, Meseko CA, Nasir FI, Abdulkarim K, Babashani M, Fasina FO, Adamu J, and Abdu PA.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(3): 312-321, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100037-11
ABSTRACT: In the current study, two experiments were performed to ascertain the existence of avian influenza H5 maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) in chickens and evaluate their effects on the humoral immune responses of chickens vaccinated with a commercial oil-emulsion inactivated avian influenza H5N9 vaccine. A total of 120 one-day-old ISA brown chicks were sourced from three different commercial hatcheries (n = 40 per hatchery) in Nigeria and used for this study. For the second experiment, ten chicks were randomly collected from each hatchery and grouped into A0, B0, and C0 at one day old, and one ml of blood was collected from five randomly selected chicks via the heart or brachial vein at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of age for the assessment of avian influenza H5 MDA. For the second experiment, 2 ml of blood was collected from the heart or brachial vein of 3 randomly selected chicks from each subgroup at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of age for evaluation of the interaction of MDA with anti-avian influenza vaccinal antibodies when different doses of the H5 antigen was administered via either IM or SC routes at 14 and 28 days of age. Sera were analyzed using ProFlok® AIV ELISA kit. This study detected AIV H5 MDA in all chicks sampled, with total decay times of 22.3, 27.3, and 26 and mean half-life (t1/2) of 2.5 ± 0.4, 3 ± 0.6, and 2.9 ± 0.4 days for chicks from hatcheries A, B, and C. The obtained results of the second experiment showed that at 21 days of age, the mean antibody titer levels of chicks from A1, B1, and C1 were respectively 57.7 ± 49.9, 260.7 ± 124.8, and 2205 ± 409.1 when the antigen was administered IM and the reported values for SC administration were respectively 53.3 ± 36, 646.3 ± 237.9 and 2,444.3 ± 1,110.6. This means that variable MDA titers interfered with the humoral immune responses of the chick’s post-vaccination. Chicks may, therefore, be vaccinated against AIV H5 subtypes between day 14 and 21 of age, preferable via the SC route to avoid significant interference by AIV H5 MDA.
Keywords: Avian influenza virus, Chicks, Dose, Hatcheries, Maternally-derived antibodies, Route, Vaccine
Micropathology of the Internal Organs of Japanese Quails Naturally Infected with Eimeria tenella
Rudik O, Kot T, Guralska S, Dovhiy Y, and Zhytova O.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(3): 322-331, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100038-11
ABSTRACT: Сoccidiosis is a protozoan disease caused by Eimeria bateri (E. bateri), Eimeria tsunodai (E. tsunodai), Eimeria uzura (E. uzura), Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), Eimeria necatrix (E. necatrix), and Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina). The goal of the current study was to explore the micropathology of the duodenum, jejunum, caecum, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland of Japanese quails naturally infected with. E. tenella. The histopathological examination revealed that developmental E. tenella led to the damage of caecal, duodenal, and jejunal. Necrosis and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium, atrophy of crypts and folds, hemorrhages, lymphoid infiltration were confirmed in the mucous membrane of these intestines. The main changes observed in the parenchymal organs involved the fatty dystrophy of hepatocytes and lymphoid infiltration of parenchyma of the liver, stagnant hyperemia and edema of the lungs; granular dystrophy and necrosis of epithelial cells of the collecting ducts of the kidneys, venostasis of blood sinusoids of the spleen, hyperplasia of interrenal tissue, and dystrophia of suprarenal tissue of the adrenal gland. Morphometric studies have shown that pathological changes in the organs of quails infected with E. tenella led to a decrease in the thickness of the caecal mucosa, volume of the parabronchial lumen of the lung, and the number of renal corpuscles of the infected group, compared to the control group. The indicators of the interrenal-adrenal index of the adrenal glands, the number of clusters of lymphoid cells of the liver, and lymphoid nodules of the spleen increased. The received information could offer deep insights about pathogens in quails coccidiosis and can be used for planning therapeutic measures.
Keywords: Eimeria tenella, Internal organs, Japenese quail, Microscopic changes, Morphometrical indices
The Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed on Miana Plant Flour (Plectranthus scutellarioides, L.) R. Br.
Mahata ME, Putri DO, Arif, Ohnuma T, and Rizal Y.
J. World Poult. Res. 11(3): 332-337, 2021; pii: S2322455X2100039-11
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Miana plant flour (PlectranthusÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ scutellarioides, L.) R. Br. in the diet on the performance of broiler chickens. The current study used 100 broiler chickens from day-old chicks, and a commercial diet was given up to seven days for the adaptation period. The present experiment was designed in a completely randomized design with five different levels of Miana plant flour (0, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5%) in broiler chicken’s diet as treatments (N = 20 bird/level), and each treatment was repeated four times. The diet was arranged iso-protein (21%) and iso-energy (2900 kcal/kg). Daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio (measured every week and divided by seven to get daily data), Live weight, Carcass percentage with skin, Carcass percentage nonskin, and abdominal fat pad percentage were measured at the end of the study. The results showed that the inclusion of Miana plant flour in broiler chickens’ diet significantly affected daily weight gain, live weight, feed conversion, carcass percentage with skin, carcass percentage except for skin while it did not affect daily feed intake and abdominal fat pad percentage. In conclusion, Miana plant flour can be used up to 12.5% in the diet non any negative effect on broiler chickens’ performance.
Keywords: Abdominal fat pad percentage, Broiler, Carcass quality, Miana plant, Performance
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